Subject: ARCHIVE: June 17, 1962 ~Hollywood star (and alleged cross-dresser) Jeff Chandler, among his rugged leading men roles in his 15 years in films/TV, likely best remembered for his Oscar-winning performance as 'Cochise' in 1950's "Broken Arrow", dies after several botched back disc surgeries, at only age 42. ...
American actor, film producer and singer best remembered for playing Cochise in Broken Arrow (1950), for which he was Oscar nominated. He was one of Universal Pictures's most popular male stars of the 1950s, his best known other credits including Sword in the Desert (1948), Deported (1950), Female on the Beach (1955) and Away All Boats (1956). In addition to his acting, he was known for his good looks, his distinguished gray hair, and for his musical recordings.
Chandler was born Ira Grossel to a Jewish family in the Brooklyn borough of New York City, the only child of Anna (nιe Herman) and Phillip Grossel. He was raised by his mother after his parents separated when he was a child.
He attended Erasmus Hall High School, the alma mater of many stage and film personalities, where he acted in school plays; his schoolmates included Susan Hayward. Chandler's father was connected with the restaurant business and got his son a job as a restaurant cashier. Chandler said he always wanted to act, but courses for commercial art were cheaper, so he studied art for a year and worked as a layout artist for a mail order catalogue at $18 a week.
Eventually he saved up enough money to take a drama course at the Feagin School of Dramatic Art in New York. He worked briefly in radio, then got a job in a stock company on Long Island as an actor and stage manager. He worked for two years in stock companies, including a performance of The Trojan Horse opposite the famous singers and actors Gordon MacRae and his wife Sheila MacRae, who became his good friends.
Chandler formed his own company, the Shady Lane Playhouse, in Illinois in the summer of 1941. This toured the Midwest with some success, presenting such plays as The Bad Man, Seventh Heaven, The New Minister and Pigs. When America entered World War Two Chandler enlisted in the army. He served for four years, mostly in the Aleutians, finishing with the rank of lieutenant.
After being discharged from the Army, Chandler moved to Los Angeles in December 1945 with $3,000 he had saved. Shortly after his arrival he was involved in a serious car accident on the way to a screen test, which resulted in a large scar on his forehead.
Chandler initially struggled to find work in Hollywood and had spent all his savings when he got his first job as a radio actor in May 1946. He went on to appear in episodes of anthology drama series such as Escape and Academy Award Theater, and became well known for playing the lead in Michael Shayne. Chandler was the first actor to portray Chad Remington in Frontier Town.
Early film roles
Chandler had appeared on air in Rogue's Gallery with Dick Powell, who was impressed by the actor and put pressure on Columbia to give Chandler his first film role, a one-line part as a gangster in Johnny O'Clock (1947). He tested for Columbia's The Loves of Carmen and did not get it but went on to play small roles as gangsters in Roses are Red and The Invisible Wall, and a policeman in Mr Belvedere Goes to College. He received more attention playing Eve Arden's boyfriend on radio in Our Miss Brooks, which debuted in July 1948 and became a massive hit.
Sword in the Desert
Chandler's performance in Our Miss Brooks brought him to the attention of executives at Universal, who were looking for someone to play an Israeli leader in Sword in the Desert (1948). He was cast in February 1949. Chandler impressed studio executives so much with his work that shortly into filming Universal signed him to a seven-year contract. His first movie under the arrangement was a supporting role in Abandoned (1949).
"Broken Arrow" and stardom
Writer-director Delmer Daves was looking for an actor to play Cochise in a Western, Broken Arrow (1950), over at 20th Century Fox. The part was proving tricky to cast; in Chandler's words, "Fox were looking for a guy big enough physically to play the role and unfamiliar enough to moviegoers to lend authenticity. Chandler's performance as a similar resistance-leader-type in Sword of the Desert brought him to the studio's attention and he was borrowed from Universal for the role in May 1949. As part of the arrangement Chandler signed a deal with Fox to make a movie a year with them for six years. He also had to be written out of his radio shows Michael Shayne and Our Miss Brooks for several weeks.
"Broken Arrow" turned out to be a considerable hit, earning Chandler an Oscar nomination and establishing
him as a star. He was the first actor nominated for an Academy Award for portraying an American Indian.
Even before Broken Arrow was released, Chandler was upped to leading man status back at Universal. He was meant to make Death on a Sidestreet and The Lady Count but neither ended up being made. Instead he took over a role originally meant for Dana Andrews, a Lucky Luciano-style gangster in Deported, for producer Robert Buckner, who cast him in Sword in the Desert. "I don't know why I got it," Chandler joked at the time, "maybe it's because I'm saving them money." The movie was shot on location in Italy, although Chandler's radio commitments meant some of it had to be filmed in Hollywood.
It was back to Fox for his second film for them, as an embittered Union cavalryman in Two Flags West for director Robert Wise. Chandler replaced Lee J. Cobb and it was one of his least typical roles, a character part rather than a leading man. Once again, location work required him to regularly commute back and forth to Hollywood throughout the shoot.
Returning to Universal, Chandler played an adventurer in Smuggler's Island, a role he liked because he said was close to his real personality. However Hollywood tended to cast him in different nationalities. According to one profile, "he has unusual face, with taut, bony features which seem to fit neatly into any sort of role."
He was reunited with Fox and Delmer Daves to play a Polynesian chief in Bird of Paradise (1951), which Chandler admitted
was a variation of his performance as Cochise. It would be the last film he made outside Universal for a number of years.
Back at Universal, he played a boxer in Iron Man (1951), a remake of an old Lew Ayres movie. He was announced for another film with Buckner, The Wild Bunch, which wasn't made; instead he played an Arab chief in Flame of Araby (1951), opposite Maureen O'Hara.
Around this time Chandler expressed his
dissatisfaction with acting in film as opposed to radio:
"[Radio actors] have to make their roles come alive, and they only have their voices with which to do it. But in pictures the technique is quite different. The actor is only a small part of the performance. He lends his intelligence and personality to the role, but the greatest part of the performance belongs to the producer, who puts him in a certain type of part; the director, who tells him how to play it; and the cutter, who edits what's done. That's why I find being a movie actor not particularly gratifying. I want to eventually branch off into writing and directing."
Chandler reprised his role as Cochise in another Western, The Battle at Apache Pass, for Universal. He then went on to make a war film, Red Ball Express, and a swashbuckler, Yankee Buccaneer. He made a cameo in Meet Danny Wilson and had a change of pace when he supported Loretta Young in Because of You - which a few years later he called his favorite role. Young later said Chandler "was more of a personality than an actor... a charming man."
In 1952 exhibitors voted Chandler the 22nd most popular star in the US. 20th Century-Fox was keen to use Chandler again and offered him roles in The Day the Earth Stood Still, Lydia Bailey, Les Misιrables and The Secret of Convict Lake. However, Universal refused to loan him out as he was now one of their biggest stars.
Our Miss Brooks transferred to television but Chandler was not permitted to do TV under his contract; his part was taken
by Robert Rockwell. On Peggy Lee's radio show he had demonstrated a talent for singing and he pursued this through the decade.
In July 1952 Chandler signed a fresh contract with Universal which doubled his salary. His first movie under this was a Western, The Great Sioux Uprising. It was followed by more adventure fare: East of Sumatra and War Arrow with Maureen O'Hara. This meant Chandler missed out on the part of Demetrius in The Robe (1953) at Fox, for which he had been considered and which eventually went to Victor Mature. He also missed out on the lead in the remake of Magnificent Obsession, for which he had been mooted; the part was taken by Rock Hudson who had supported Chandler in Iron Man. Both The Robe and Magnificent Obsession became big hits. Chandler played Cochise for the third time, a cameo in Taza, Son of Cochise, starring Hudson, who soon overtook Chandler as Universal's biggest male star.
Universal announced him for Chief Crazy Horse but the role ended up being played by Victor Mature. Instead he appeared in Yankee Pasha and started singing in nightclubs. He left the radio show Our Miss Brooks after five years "to get a rest," he said. "Although it didn't take long to do the show, it tied up all my Sundays".
Chandler appeared in an expensive (for Universal) epic, playing the Emperor Marcian in Sign of the Pagan and co-starred against Jane Russell in Foxfire (1955) which he enjoyed because "I don't have to be so darned monosyllabic in this one." He then made "Female on the Beach", with Joan Crawford and began releasing records.
Conflicts with Universal
In 1954 Chandler was starting to gripe about his workload:
"You just can't call your time your own. When you're trekking the country - as I am now for my Decca records "I Should Care" and "More Than Anyone" and for Universal International, my home studio - every hour of the day, from the morning disc jockeys to the midnight program is filled. And in Hollywood, if you're not working on a picture or getting ready for one, you have to keep studying. I make a point of answering all my mail and when anyone asks me for an autograph I'm not just flattered. I see that as the least I can do for the people who have given me the fruits of this world."
In May Chandler refused to play the lead in Six Bridges to Cross and Universal put him on suspension. He was replaced in the role by George Nader. Chandler spoke of making Young Moses and a Western with friends Tony Curtis and Janet Leigh, but neither was made. He announced "being a movie star isn't worth it", complaining that:
"I can't go anywhere as an ordinary individual. There was a time I could walk around Times Square in New York (my home town) and look into shop windows or go into a cafe and eat in peace. But no more. I can't go anywhere unnoticed. Movie fans seem to think that actors belong to them but we like to feel we belong to ourselves. Don't get me wrong - I wanted fame and money when I decided to take up acting. I like being recognized - it's flattering. But there's always one character who spoils anything... I walk into a restaurant and get a ringside table- but you remember I also have to leave the biggest tip. If I don't, I'm labeled the tightest guy in town. And let's face it, acting is the easiest way I know to make a buck. But I think I'm a fairly bright boy - I figure I could have made as much in some other business... Anyone in the world with imagination and initiative can become a success. Me? I like to push buttons. I was born to be an executive - an idea man. An executive is a guy who thinks things up and has other people execute them. I'd quit work immediately if I had the money, and travel for a while. I'd like to do some writing. I marked two radio scripts and have finished synopses and five movie stories."
Chandler made up with Universal who cast him in Lady Godiva of Coventry. Chandler refused the role and was replaced again by George Nader. However this time the dispute was not over money but due to Chandler's over work.
Universal cast Chandler in an expensive remake of The Spoilers, then was given
the lead in one of the studio's most prestigious films of the year, "Away All Boats" (1956). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yHYNGCzhXs
In May Chandler performed at the Riviera Hotel in Las Vegas. The Los Angeles Times wrote that Chandler "is proving remarkable in performing singing duty, even though he is not exactly a singing type." He made a Western, Pillars of the Sky, then had a change of pace with the comedy The Toy Tiger, the fourth movie he made that year. Louella Parsons called Chandler "the busiest actor in town... Jeff is so happy in his private life these days that he's doing everything the studio wants." Towards the end of the year, Chandler formed his own production company, Earlmar, with his agent, Meyer Mishkin. This was to take effect from August 1956 onwards, when Chandler's exclusive contract with Universal expired. However Chandler intended to continue to make films for Universal under a multi-picture contract. He was voted the seventh most popular star with British cinema goers.
Producer and New Contract with Universal
In 1956, Universal gave Chandler a leave of absence from his contract with them "for a period of several months" to enable him to make his own movie for Earlmar. In exchange for this, Chandler was to make two more films for Universal under his original contract with them, then enter into a new arrangement under which he would appear in two films a year over three years.
Earlmar signed a six-picture deal with United Artists, under which Chandler was to appear in at least three of the films. He acted in and produced the first Earlmar production, a Western, Drango. "It's no Indian story," said Chandler, "let Cochise rest in peace." Chandler bought the rights to a novel, Lincoln McEever but it was never made; Drango would turn out to be Earlmar's sole production.
After Drango Chandler made the final two films owing under his original contract with Universal: The Tattered Dress, playing a lawyer in a melodrama, and Man in the Shadow, co-starring opposite Orson Welles. He had commitments to make two films a year at Universal until 1959.
Chandler then moved over to Columbia and acted with Kim Novak in Jeanne Eagels, a popular "biopic".
He followed this with two films for Universal, The Lady Takes a Flyer, with Lana Turner and Raw Wind in Eden,
with Esther Williams. A Motion Picture Exhibitor Poll listed him as the tenth most popular male star in the US in 1957. Chandler made another for Universal, A Stranger in My Arms with June Allyson. He was allegedly due to star in Operation Petticoat (1959) but fell ill and had to pull out. Chandler's next two movies were made for a brand new company, Seven Arts: Ten Seconds to Hell, a bomb disposal drama shot in Germany with Jack Palance for director Robert Aldrich, and Thunder in the Sun, a Western with Susan Hayward. The last of those was distributed by Paramount, who also released Chandler's next film, another Western, The Jayhawkers. In Ten Seconds to Hell and The Jayhawkers Chandler played villains. He later reflected "I've tried heavies - but audiences didn't seem to take to that."
...Chandler formed another production company, August, for which
he made "The Plunderers", a Western, distributed by Allied Artists.
Allied was so pleased with the film they requested three more
movies from August, but Chandler never got to make them.
His next film, "The Story of David", was filmed for American TV - his first work in that medium
-but shown theatrically in other countries. It was shot in London and Israel. Chandler stated:
"I don't want to make pictures in other countries; I want to stay home. But suddenly there are not enough pictures being made here. All other countries are giving inducements to companies and to players; even a little country like Israel is trying to formulate a plan for subsidies. Our government still taxes the hell out of people; somebody ought to wake 'em up."
...Chandler married actress Marjorie Hoshelle (19181989) in 1946. The couple had two daughters, Jamie Tucker (19472003) and Dana Grossel (19492002). They separated in 1951 and 1954, actually divorcing in 1954. His wife complained that Chandler was "chronically fatigued so that he would fall asleep wherever we were." However they reconciled a few months later.
In 1957, he had an affair with Esther Williams while making a movie
together and his wife filed for divorce at the end of the year. ...
In his 1958 divorce proceedings it was revealed Chandler was paying his wife an allowance of $1,500 a month. He said he was under contract to Universal to make two films a year, at $60,000 a film for 1957 and $75,000 a film for 1958. He said he earned $250,000 in 1957 from his acting and singing but had a lot of expenses, with his personal manager, business manager and agent taking 25% of his income. The court ordered Chandler to continue paying $1,500 a month. Their divorce was granted in June 1959, with Chandler giving his wife $100,000 and over $2,166 a month in alimony plus $500 a month in child support. "He became so absorbed by his career that he spent all time when not actually working on a picture in his business office," said his wife. "I developed an ulcer."
Chandler was also involved in a will dispute concerning his stepfather in 1960.
Chandler was a cousin of Billy Jack actor David Roya, who played the young villain Bernard Posner.
...When his friend Sammy Davis, Jr. lost an eye in an accident and was in danger
of losing the other, Chandler offered to give Davis one of his own eyes.
Chandler himself had nearly lost an eye and had been visibly scarred in an auto accident years earlier.
Chandler had a relationship with Gloria De Haven that was exposed in Confidential Magazine.
At a trial, Fred Otash said the detectives had followed them to get the story.
He was linked with Esther Williams, who claimed in her 1999 autobiography Chandler was a cross dresser and she broke off the relationship. According to the Los Angeles Times, many friends and colleagues of Chandler's rejected Williams' claims. Jane Russell commented, "I've never heard of such a thing. Cross-dressing is the last thing I would expect of Jeff. He was a sweet guy, definitely all man." He was also linked with Ann Sheridan.
Chandler's public support for Israel's 1956 attack on Egypt during the Suez Crisis, prompted the
United Arab Republic to ban his films in Arab countries in 1960. Chandler was an active Democrat.
He represented the Screen Actors Guild during talks throughout the 1960 actors strike.
While working on Merrill's Marauders in the Philippines, on April 15, 1961, Chandler injured his back while playing baseball with U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers who served as extras in the film. He had injections to deaden the pain and enable him to finish the production.
On May 13, 1961, he entered a Culver City hospital and had surgery for a spinal disc herniation. There were severe complications; an artery was damaged and Chandler hemorrhaged. On May 17, in a seven-and-a-half-hour emergency operation over-and-above the original surgery, he was given 55 pints of blood. A third operation followed, on May 27, where he received an additional 20 pints of blood. He died on June 17, 1961. The cause was a blood infection complicated by pneumonia.
At the time of his death, Chandler was involved with British actress Barbara Shelley.
Tony Curtis and Gerald Mohr were among the pallbearers at Chandler's funeral,
which was attended by more than 1,500 people. He was interred in
the Mausoleum at Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in Culver City. ...
An investigation ensued into Chandler's death. It was deemed
malpractice and resulted in his children suing the hospital for $1.5 million.
Chandler's own estate was worth $600,000, which he left to his daughters.
His ex-wife sued his estate for $80,000 in money owing under their divorce settlement.
For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Chandler
has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 1770 Vine Street.
Film historian David Shipman once wrote this analysis of Chandler:
"Jeff Chandler looked as though he had been dreamed up by one of those artists who specialize in male physique studies or, a mite further up the artistic scale, he might have been plucked bodily from some modern mural on a biblical subject. For that he had the requisite Jewishness (of which he was very proud) and he was not quite real. Above all, he was impossibly handsome. He would never have been lost in a crowd, with that big, square, sculpted 20th century face and his prematurely grey wavy hair. If the movies had not found him the advertising agencies would have done and in fact, whenever you saw a still of him you looked at his wrist-watch or pipe before realizing that he wasn't promoting something. In the colored stills and on posters his studio always showed his hair as blue, heightening the unreality. His real name was Ira Grossel and his film-name was exactly right."
An obituary of Chandler said,
"Known for his careful attention to detail in making pictures, Chandler was often described as introverted. But colleagues who worked with him closely said he had an easy, light-hearted approach on the set that helped ease some of the strain of production."
The famed animated action-adventure series Jonny Quest's handsome, white-haired,
veteran special agent bodyguard Race Bannon's design was modeled after Jeff Chandler.