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Subject: ARCHIVE: July 27, 1995 ~Miklós Rózsa, famed Oscar-winning (earning 17 Oscar nominations) film composer, best known for his nearly one hundred film scores, Spellbound (1945), A Double Life (1947), and Ben-Hur (1959), and was inadvertently placed in pop culture when another musician stole his simple four-note motif composed 1949's "The Killers", and swapped-out as new in TV Dragnet theme song! Rózsa was 88. ...
Hungarian-American composer trained in Germany (1925-1931), and active in France (1931-1935), the United Kingdom (1935-1940), and the United States (1940-1995), with extensive sojourns in Italy from 1953. Best known for his nearly one hundred film scores, he nevertheless maintained a steadfast allegiance to absolute concert music throughout what he called his "double life."
Rozsa achieved early success in Europe with his orchestral Theme, Variations, and Finale (Op. 13) of 1933 and became prominent in the film industry from such early scores as The Four Feathers (1939) and The Thief of Bagdad (1940). The latter project brought him to America when production was transferred from wartime Britain, and Rozsa remained in the United States, becoming an American citizen in 1946. His notable Hollywood career earned him considerable fame, earning 17 Oscar nominations including 3 wins for Spellbound (1945), A Double Life (1947), and Ben-Hur (1959), while his concert works were championed by such major artists as Jascha Heifetz, Gregor Piatigorsky, and Jonos Starker.
Early life ...
Miklos Rozsa was born in Budapest and was introduced to classical and folk music by his mother, Regina Berkovits, a pianist who had studied with pupils of Franz Liszt, and his father, Gyula, a well-to-do industrialist and landowner who loved Hungarian folk music. Rozsa's maternal uncle Lajos Berkovits, violinist with the Budapest Opera, presented young Miklos with his first instrument at the age of five. He later took up the viola and piano. By age eight he was performing in public and composing. He also collected folksongs from the area where his family had a country estate north of Budapest in an area inhabited by the Paloc Hungarians.
Rozsa sought to study music in Germany. …
...He enrolled at the University of Leipzig in 1925, ostensibly to study chemistry at the behest of his father. Determined to become a composer, he transferred to the Leipzig Conservatory the following year. There he studied composition with Hermann Grabner, a former student of Max Reger. He also studied choral music with (and later assisted) Karl Straube at the Thomaskirche, where Johann Sebastian Bach had once been the organist. Rozsa emerged from these years with a deep respect for the German musical tradition, which would always temper the Hungarian nationalism of his musical style.
Rozsa's first two published works, the String Trio, Op. 1, and the Piano Quintet, Op. 2, were issued in Leipzig by Breitkopf & Hortel. In 1929 he received his diplomas cum laude. During the Leipzig years he essayed a single-movement Violin Concerto and a lengthy Symphony, Op. 6. Neither work was published, and Rozsa was discouraged on a trip to Berlin when Wilhelm Furtwongler did not find time to consider the Symphony. Rozsa suppressed both works, but eventually allowed the Symphony (minus its lost scherzo) to be recorded in 1993.
For a time he remained in Leipzig as Grabner's assistant, but at the suggestion of the French organist and composer Marcel Dupro, he moved to Paris in 1932. There he composed chamber music and a Serenade for small orchestra, Op. 10 (later greatly revised as Hungarian Serenade, Op. 25). It was premiered in Budapest by Erno Dohnonyi, who had advised Rozsa to offer a shorter work than the Symphony. Richard Strauss was in the audience, and his approval meant more to the young composer than the presence of Habsburg royalty and the prince regent, Miklos Horthy. The subsequent Theme, Variations, and Finale, Op. 13, which was especially well received and was performed by conductors such as Charles Munch, Karl Bohm, Georg Solti, Eugene Ormandy, Bruno Walter, and Leonard Bernstein. To make ends meet, he composed light music under the pseudonym Nic Tomay.
Film scoring career ...
Rozsa was introduced to film music in 1934 by his friend, the Swiss composer Arthur Honegger. Following a concert which featured their respective compositions, Honegger mentioned that he supplemented his income as a composer of film scores, including the film Les Miserables (1934). Rozsa went to see it and was greatly impressed by the opportunities the film medium offered.
However, it was not until Rozsa moved to London that he was hired to compose his first film score
for Knight Without Armour (1937), produced by his fellow Hungarian Alexander Korda. … https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=onOG1frSrNs
After his next score, for Thunder in the City (1937), he joined the staff of Korda's London Films, and scored the studio's epic The Four Feathers (1939). Korda and the studio's music director, Muir Mathieson, brought Rozsa onto their Arabian Nights fantasy The Thief of Bagdad (1940) when the operetta-style approach of the original composer, Oscar Straus, was deemed unsuitable. Production was transferred to Hollywood when the war broke out, and Rozsa completed his score there in 1940.
The music earned him his first Academy Award nomination. While Korda remained in Hollywood, Rozsa was effectively the music director of his organization. His scores in this capacity included Lydia (1940), That Hamilton Woman (1941), and The Jungle Book (1942). From the last of these emerged The Jungle Book Suite for narrator and orchestra, which became popular as narrated by the film's star, Sabu, and was soon recorded in New York by RCA. The 78-rpm album became the first substantial recording of Hollywood film music.
In 1943, now associated with Paramount, Rozsa scored the first of several collaborations with director Billy Wilder, Five Graves to Cairo. That same year that he also scored the similarly themed Humphrey Bogart film Sahara. In 1944, his scores for his second Wilder collaboration, Double Indemnity, and for The Woman of the Town, earned him separate Academy Award nominations in the same year. However, Max Steiner won the Oscar for that year for Since You Went Away.
...In 1945, Rozsa was hired to compose the score for Alfred Hitchcock's film Spellbound, after Bernard Herrmann became unavailable due to other commitments. The score, notable for pioneering the use of the theremin, was immensely successful and earned him his first Oscar. However, Hitchcock disliked the score, saying it "got in the way of his direction".
Two of his other scores from that year, The Lost Weekend and A Song to Remember, were also nominated,
making Rozsa, to date, the only composer to have won against two of his own scores. Rozsa, who also reportedly
hated the interruptions and interference by producer David O Selznick, never worked for either Hitchcock or Selznick again. …
Rozsa earned another Oscar nomination for scoring The Killers (1946) which introduced Burt Lancaster to film audiences. nterestingly, his single best-known melody isn't normally attributed to him, and became famous by accident. For the hit men in "The Killers" Rozsa devised a suitably threatening four-note motif. A few years later, composer Walter Schumann inadvertantly used this motto at the beginning of his title music for Jack Webb's tv cop show, "Dragnet". When the similarities were pointed out to Rozsa, he filed suit. Schumann retained sole credit for the "Dragnet Theme" while agreeing to pay Rozsa half the royalties for it. The rest is pop culture history, as Rozsa's portentious little tune became a joking symbol for deadpan authority. ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3R9wIY42Rf8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nx5GwULPU90
Rozsa received his second Oscar in 1947 for A Double Life, which also won Ronald Colman an Academy Award for Best Actor. That same year Rozsa and Eugene Zador orchestrated music by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov for the film Song of Scheherazade, about a fictional episode in the composer's life. Rozsa also wrote original music for the film. Also in 1947 he scored the music for the psychological thriller The Red House. Among other films scored by Rozsa during the 1940s were the prison drama Brute Force (1947), also with Lancaster, and The Naked City (1948), the latter also including music by Frank Skinner. Both of those films were directed by Jules Dassin.
"Madame Bovary" (1949) was Rózsa's first important score for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, which produced most of the later films that he scored. Other popular scores that he composed for MGM pictures include Quo Vadis (1951), Ivanhoe (1952), Plymouth Adventure (1952), Knights of the Round Table (1953), Green Fire (1954). Moonfleet (1955), Bhowani Junction (1956), Lust for Life (1956), Ben-Hur (1959), King of Kings (1961) and The V.I.P.s (1963).
...For Ben-Hur, he received his third and final Oscar, as seen here beautifullt conducted from 1979
PBS show "Previn & The Pittsburgh", Miklos Rozsa conducts his suite from "Ben Hur" (1959),
with The Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. His final two nominations (one each for Best Original Score
and Best Original Song) were for the 1961 Samuel Bronston film El Cid.
In 1968, Rozsa was asked to score The Green Berets, after Elmer Bernstein turned it down due to his political beliefs. Rozsa initially declined the offer, saying, "I don't do westerns." However, he agreed to compose the score after being informed, "It's not a Western, it's an 'Eastern'." He produced a strong and varied score, which included a night club vocal by a Vietnamese singer Bạch Yến. However, one cue which incorporated stanzas of "Onward Christian Soldiers" was deleted from the film's final edit.
His popular film scores during the 1970s included his last two Billy Wilder collaborations The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes (1970) and Fedora (1978), the Ray Harryhausen fantasy sequel The Golden Voyage of Sinbad (1973), the latter-day film noir Last Embrace starring Roy Scheider, and the time-travel fantasy film Time After Time (1979) for which Rozsa won a Science Fiction Film Award, saying in his televised acceptance speech that of all the film scores he had ever composed, it was the one he had worked on the hardest. … https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkLBR7oau6k
After completing work on the music for the spy thriller Eye of the Needle (1981), Rozsa's last film score was for the black-and-white Steve Martin film Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid (1982), a comic homage to the film noir films of the 1940s, a genre to which Rozsa himself had contributed scores. Although Rozsa's career as a composer for films ended following a stroke he suffered while on holiday in Italy later that year, he continued to compose various concert pieces thereafter; one of his last works being Sonata for Ondes Martenot, op. 45 (1989).
He returned to California at the behest of his son, and remained until his death on July 27, 1995,
and was buried at Forest Lawn in the Hollywood Hills. His wife Margaret died in 1999, aged 89. …
Rozsa's first major success was the orchestral Theme, Variations, and Finale, Op. 13, introduced in Duisburg, Germany, in 1934 and soon taken up by Charles Munch, Karl Bohm, Bruno Walter, Hans Swarowsky, and other leading conductors.
It was first played in the United States by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra under Hans Lange on 28-29 October 1937, and achieved wide exposure through a 1943 New York Philharmonic concert broadcast when Leonard Bernstein made his famous conducting debut.
By 1952, his film score work was proving so successful that he was able to negotiate a clause in his contract with MGM that gave him three months each year away from the film studio so that he could focus on concert music.
Rozsa's Violin Concerto, Op. 24, was composed in 1953-54 for the violinist Jascha Heifetz, who collaborated with the composer in fine-tuning it. Rozsa later adapted portions of this work for the score of Billy Wilder's The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes (1970). Rozsa's Cello Concerto, Op. 32 was written much later (1967-68) at the request of the cellist Jonos Starker, who premiered the work in Berlin in 1969.
Between his violin and cello concertos, Rozsa composed his Sinfonia Concertante, Op. 29, for violin, cello, and orchestra. The commissioning artists, Heifetz and his frequent collaborator Gregor Piatigorsky, never performed the finished work, although they did record a reduced version of the slow movement, called Tema con Variazoni, Op. 29a.
Rozsa also received recognition for his choral works. His collaboration with conductor Maurice Skones and The Choir of the West at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington, resulted in a commercial recording of his sacred choral works To Everything There is a Season, Op. 20; The Vanities of Life, Op. 30; and The Twenty-Third Psalm, Op. 34 produced by John Steven Lasher and recorded by Allen Giles for the Entr'acte Recording Society in 1978.
In popular culture ...
The seventh variation (after the theme) of his "Theme, Variations And Finale," Op. 13, was used as part of the soundtrack in four episodes, most notably "The Clown Who Cried" of the 1950s television series "The Adventures of Superman".