not a demohomocrap
Next Thread |
Previous Thread |
Next Message |
Date Posted: 01:59:03 08/05/04 Thu
In reply to:
's message, "Where are you, "not a Demo"? Where did you run away?" on 19:58:27 08/04/04 Wed
"The ""principal"" food, eaten daily from earthen pots, was a vegetarian stew containing corn, pumpkin and beans"
Secondary foods included meats from hunted game and not suprisingly, cat fish.
Try again oh yawner of tall tales. Got another one I can shoot down? :)
Before coming to Oklahoma in the 1830's, the Choctaw occupied most of the area that is now Mississippi and western Alabama. Their own history has them coming
Choctaw originally "from the west" and finally settling in Mississippi. By late prehistoric times they lived in scattered villages and enjoyed a ""rich diet of hunted game""!!!, fish, and harvested foods supplemented with cultivated vegetables including corn, beans and squash. Their gardening activities were extremely successful and they traded their surplus to other peoples in the region.
With the arrival of Europeans to the Americas, new tools and goods became available. The Choctaw were among the earliest native peoples to assimilate the new technology into their own culture. Their successful agrarian economy was strengthened with domesticated animals and European trade goods. They served as middlemen between their native neighbors and successively, the Spanish, French, British, and later the United States. They built substantial log houses and constructed fences to mark property in imitation of Europeans. With better access to trade goods, the Choctaw also furnished their dwellings with ceramic dishes, metal pots and pans, steel cutlery, and for hunting, guns. By 1826 they had written laws and a representative form of government, and established formal schooling systems.
In a series of treaties with the U.S. beginning in 1796, Choctaw leaders ceded various parcels of land. The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek in 1830, the last of nine agreements, provided for the exchange of the Choctaw's remaining lands for the southern part of Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), and their voluntary move to there. (Those who remained in Mississippi could not consider themselves Choctaw, but became citizens of that state). The long journey to their new home, which often did not include the supplies and wagons promised by the US in the treaty, was an arduous one and many did not survive. As with other Indian groups that were moved west, the Choctaw remember this trek as a "Trail of Tears."
Those who survived the Trail of Tears were eager to duplicate the lives they had known in Mississippi. Clearing land near the Red River, some became wealthy plantation owners with servants and slaves. Others isolated themselves in the mountain forests, opting to maintain a hunting and gathering lifestyle. Various industries developed, requiring the building of roads. Small towns were established and supported by new grist mills, sawmills, saltworks, and cotton gins.
As the people recovered economically, they rebuilt socially. They re-established their constitutional republic in 1834. By 1836 there were eleven elementary schools in the area. Nine high school-level institutions were started including Wheelock Academy, which opened west of Idabel in 1842. By 1848 Choctaw newspapers were in circulation and Christian missionaries were given permission to establish new stations in the territory. Soon, native preachers outnumbered white ones and the Church became the focal point of community life. By 1860, three decades after their forced removal, the Choctaw adopted a final constitution and took pride in their progressive society founded on law instead of custom.
Frustrated by broken promises, and living in a style more similar to that of the South, the Choctaw sided with the Confederate States during the American Civil War. Most of the other tribes in Indian Territory did as well. After the War, new agreements with the US forced the Choctaw to abolish slavery, give up their westernmost lands, and allow railroads to cross their territory. This last move encouraged large scale mining and timber operations. These generally prospered and tribal receipts increased tremendously. However, the railroads and industries also attracted white settlers. In order to accommodate their presence in "Indian Territory" the United States provided for the end of tribally-owned lands through an allotment system whereby individuals were granted private properties. The Dawes Commission, beginning in 1894 saw to the registration of Choctaw families in order to properly distribute the former tribal lands among them. The final list included 18,981 citizens of the Choctaw Nation, 1,639 Mississippi Choctaw, and 5,994 former slaves. In 1906, the tribal government was dissolved although a principal chief, appointed by the president of the US, continued to be recognized. Private ownership meant that land could be sold, and many Choctaw sold their allotments to speculators and others.
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 ended any further allotments. It also allowed tribes to establish their own governments and in 1948, the Oklahoma Choctaw were again able to elect their own chief. Today, they are led by a tribal council headed by principal chief Gregory Pyle. Tribal headquarters are located in Durant, OK. A reservation was established in 1944 for the descendants of those Choctaw who remained in Mississippi. This Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians is centered at Philadelphia, MS, and is also led by a tribal council with an elected chief.
A Choctaw Chronology
1540 Spanish conquistador Hernando DeSoto encounters Choctaw. At Battle of Mabilu, up to 1500 Choctaw are killed by the Spanish.
1699 After Mississippi River explorations by de La Salle, Marquette and Jolliet, French establish Fort Maurepas on Gulf Coast
1720 Choctaw ally with different European powers, preferring French over British, who support rival Chickasaw;
1730 Choctaw join the French in war against Natchez; tribe is destroyed
1748 Tribal civil war between pro-French and pro-British factions;
1755 French and Indian War (Seven Years War in Europe); Choctaw allegiances vary
1763 Treaty of Paris: France cedes all North American land claims to British; Choctaw enter into treaty defining their borders
1765 War with Creek Indians
1783 Treaty of Paris grants independence to US; Choctaws generally supported Americans against British
1786 Treaty of Hopewell between US and Choctaw establishing borders
1798 Mississippi Territory formed
1801 Treaty of Ft. Adams whereby 2,264,920 acres along Mississippi River are sold to US for $2000
1802 Treaty of Ft. Confederation whereby approximately 50,000 acres is ceded to US for $1
1803 Treaty of Hoe Buckintoopa whereby 853,760 acres of land are ceded in settlement of trade debt amounting to $40,000
1805 Treaty of Mt. Dexter whereby 4,142,720 acres of land are ceded in settlement of trade debt amounting to nearly $48,000, plus payment of annuity of $3000, plus payment of $500 for chiefs and salaries of $150 per year
1803 Louisiana Purchase
1804 Louisiana Territorial Act authorizes President to negotiate with tribes to move west of Mississippi River
1812 Choctaw support Americans against British in War of 1812
1816 Treaty of Fort St. Stephens whereby approximately 3,000,000 acres of land are sold for $10,000 plus annual payments of $6000 for 20 years
1818 First school founded at Elliot
1820 Treaty of Doak's Stand whereby 5,269,788 acres are exchanged for approximately 13,000,000 acres west of Mississippi
1824 Bureau of Indian Affairs established within War Department
1825 Treaty of Washington City establishes borders for lands received in Treaty of Doak's Stand; In exchange for 2,000,000 fewer acres then originally agreed, US will move out any white settlers living in remaining "Indian Territory" plus provide a perpetual annuity of $6000, payment of trading debts, and pensions for Choctaw veterans who fought in War of 1812
1829 Mississippi legislature abolishes tribal government and extends citizenship to all Choctaw
1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek whereby remaining 10,000,000+ acres of Choctaw land in Mississippi and Alabama are ceded and tribes agree to move to Indian Territory in exchange for protection, passage, and an annuity of $20,000 for twenty years, plus funds for schools, churches, and a council house.
1833 Treaty of Doaksville whereby Choctaw lease lands west of their own settlements to Chickasaw for $530,000
1834 First Tribal Council Meeting in Indian Territory at Jack's Fort; constitution adopted
1837 Council House erected at Jack's Fork
1855 Chickasaw Nation established in leased lands; lands west of Chickasaw Nation leased for $800,000 to US, which will settle Wichita and other tribes there
1859 Choctaw awarded $2,981,247.30 by US Senate in settlement of outstanding debt from sale of Mississippi lands
1860 Office of principal chief and supreme court established
1865 Chief Peter Pitchlynn surrenders Choctaw military forces, which fought for the Confederacy, to the US;
1866 Treaty whereby Choctaw free all slaves, cede westernmost lands (leased since 1855 by US), and permit railroad building across their lands
1893 Authorization of President to negotiate termination of land titles held by Five Civilized Tribes; Dawes Commission established for allotment program
1905 Five Civilized Tribes attempt to establish State of Sequoyah
1906 Choctaw tribal government dissolved
1907 Dawes Commission closes enrollment
1918 Choctaw Indian Agency established in Philadelphia, Mississippi
1934 Indian Reorganization Act ends allotment and encourages the establishing of new tribal governments
1953 Termination Act provides for independent action by tribes in matters formerly the responsibility of the US including health care and education
1975 Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
Next Thread |
Previous Thread |
Next Message |