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Arizona State Route 366 -- Heden, 20:49:24 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Arizona State Route 366
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
State Route 366 marker
State Route 366
Mount Graham Road
Route information
Maintained by ADOT
Length: 28.33 mi[1] (45.59 km)
Existed: 1960 – present
Major junctions
West end: Near Mount Graham
East end: US 191 at Swift Trail Junction
Highway system
State Routes in Arizona
Interstate U.S. State Unconstructed Former
← SR 364 SR 373 →
State Route 366 (SR 366) is a highway in Graham County, Arizona that runs from its junction with US 191 south of Safford to near the summit of Mount Graham. It is a winding mountain road with one half primarily a northwest-southeast route, the other half being northeast-southwest.

Contents [hide]
1 Route description
2 History
3 Junction list
4 References
5 External links
Route description[edit]
SR 366 is a 28.33-mile (45.59 km) highway that connects Mount Graham with US 191 at Swift Trail Junction south of Safford. The western terminus of the highway is located near a ranger station near the peak of Mount Graham. The highway heads in a southeastern route as it descends the mountain. There are several hair pin turns as the highway follows the terrain. At Turkey Flat, the highway goes through a series of five hair pin turns. The highway also begins to generally head in a northeasterly direction from this point on. The terrain eventually smooths out and the highway follows a straight path towards the northeast to its eastern terminus at US 191.

SR 366 traverses sparsely inhabited forest and mountain terrain and does not pass through any cities or towns aside from minor settlements. The highway does provide access to Mount Graham, one of the higher peaks in Arizona at over 10,000 feet (3,000 m). It also provides access to the Mount Graham International Observatory.[1][2]

SR 366 was established in 1960 from a junction with US 666 (now US 191) to the southwest for 6.3 miles (10.1 km).[3] Later that same year, it was extended an additional 22 miles (35 km) to the Columbine Ranger Station.[4] At this time the road was a gravel road providing access to the Coronado National Forest.[5] Since that time, the easternmost 21.7 miles (34.9 km) have been paved while the rest remains as a gravel road.[1]

Junction list[edit]
The entire route is in Graham County.

Location mi[1] km Destinations Notes
0.00 0.00 US 191
28.33 45.59 Near Mount Graham
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
^ Jump up to: a b c d Arizona Department of Transportation. "2008 ADOT Highway Log" (PDF). Retrieved April 8, 2008.
Jump up ^ Google (2008-04-11). "overview map of SR 366" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
Jump up ^ Arizona Department of Transportation. "ADOT Right-of-Way Resolution 1960-116". Retrieved 2008-05-07.
Jump up ^ Arizona Department of Transportation. "ADOT Right-of-Way Resolution 1961-070". Retrieved 2008-05-07.
Jump up ^ Road Map of Arizona (Map). Rand McNally. 1961. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
External links[edit]
Route map: Bing / Google

KML file (edit • help)
Display on Bing Maps
Display on Google Maps
Arizona Roads
Categories: State highways in ArizonaTransportation in Graham County, Arizona

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Neon (Chris Young album -- Heden, 20:46:27 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Neon (Chris Young album)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Studio album by Chris Young
Released July 12, 2011
Recorded 2010–11
Genre Country
Length 32:23
Label RCA Nashville
Producer James Stroud
Chris Young chronology
The Man I Want to Be
(2009) Neon
(2011) A.M.
Singles from Neon
Released: February 21, 2011[1]
Released: September 12, 2011
Released: March 26, 2012
"I Can Take It from There"
Released: October 15, 2012
Neon is the third studio album by American country music artist Chris Young. It was released on July 12, 2011, via RCA Records Nashville.[2] Young co-wrote seven of the album's ten tracks.[3] The album sold 72,830 copies its first week.[4]

The album includes the singles "Tomorrow", "You", "Neon", and "I Can Take It from There".

Contents [hide]
1 Critical reception
2 Track listing
3 Chart performance
3.1 Album
3.2 Singles
4 Certifications
5 Personnel
6 References
Critical reception[edit]
Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
AllMusic 4/5 stars[5]
Country Weekly 4/5 stars[6]
Slant Magazine 3/5 stars[7]
Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic praised the album for being able to deliver tracks that straddle the line between country and country pop and allows Young to perform them with convincing delivery, concluding that "If Neon does anything, it proves that Young can manage this delicate balance all the while seeming like it's no trouble at all."[5] Jonathan Keefe of Slant Magazine was mixed towards the album, saying that despite some interesting tracks and Young's vocal delivery, it consists of filler that lacks a viewpoint and could've been perform by anyone, calling it "committee-based songwriting at its worst." He concluding that "It's a shame, then, that most of the set finds Young fighting an uphill battle against some lackluster material."[7]

Track listing[edit]
No. Title Writer(s) Length
1. "I Can Take It from There" Chris Young, Rhett Akins, Ben Hayslip 2:38
2. "Lost" Young, Chris DuBois, Ashley Gorley 3:12
3. "Tomorrow" Young, Frank J. Myers, Anthony L. Smith 3:40
4. "Save Water, Drink Beer" Megan Connor, Ross Copperman, Jon Nite 2:47
5. "Neon" Shane McAnally, Josh Osborne, Trevor Rosen 3:45
6. "Old Love Feels New" Young, Brett James, Tim Nichols 4:01
7. "You" Young, Luke Laird 2:45
8. "Flashlight" Young, Robert Arthur, Johnny Bulford 3:24
9. "When She's On" Monty Criswell, Shane Minor 3:09
10. "She's Got This Thing About Her" Young, Cory Batten, Kent Blazy 3:02
[show]iTunes bonus tracks
Chart performance[edit]
Chart (2011) Peak
US Billboard 200[8] 4
US Billboard Top Country Albums[8] 2
Year Single Peak chart positions
US Country US Country Airplay US CAN Country
[9] CAN
2011 "Tomorrow"[10] 1 — 36 — 95
"You" 1 — 34 — 66
2012 "Neon" 23 — 92 — —
"I Can Take It from There" 16 4 63 4 76
"—" denotes releases that did not chart
Region Certification Sales/shipments
United States (RIAA)[11] Gold 500,000^
*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

Adapted from the Neon liner notes.[12]

Bill Watson – acoustic guitar
Mike Brignardello, Mark Hill – bass
Paul Franklin – dobro, steel guitar
Shannon Forrest – drums
Kenny Greenberg, Brent Mason – electric guitar
Aubrey Haynie – fiddle, mandolin
Steve Nathan – organ, piano
Kristin Wilkinson – string arrangements, string conductor, viola
Anthony LaMarchina, Carole Rabinowitz – cello
Jim Grosjean, Betsy Lamb – viola
Dave Angell, David Davidson, Conni Ellisor, Pamela Sixfin, Catherine Umstead, Alan Umstead, Mary K. Vanosdale – violin
Chris Young – lead vocals
Wes Hightower – background vocals
Julian King – recording engineer, audio mixing (Oceanway Studios and LOUD Recording)
David Bryant, Jake Burns and Rich Hanson – assistant
Bob Ludwig – mastering
Doug Rich, Tammy Luker – production assistants
Jump up ^ "R&R: Going for Adds: Country". Retrieved July 28, 2011.
Jump up ^ Wyland, Sarah (May 12, 2011). "Chris Young to Release Neon on July 12". Great American Country. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
Jump up ^ Haislop, Neil (June 29, 2011). "Chris Young Gives Fans A Sneak Peek Of New Album, Neon". All Access. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
Jump up ^ Bjorke, Matt (July 20, 2011). "Blake Shelton Scores Career First This Week With "Red River Blue"". Roughstock. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
^ Jump up to: a b Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Neon - Chris Young". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
Jump up ^ Phillips, Jessica (June 13, 2011). "Neon by Chris Young". Country Weekly. American Media, Inc. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
^ Jump up to: a b Keefe, Jonathan (July 12, 2011). "Chris Young: "Neon" - Music Review". Slant Magazine. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
^ Jump up to: a b "Chart listing for Neon". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
Jump up ^ "Chris Young Album & Song Chart History – Canada Country". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Chart listing for "Tomorrow"". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
Jump up ^ "American album certifications – Chris Young – Neon". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved November 3, 2015. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
Jump up ^ Neon (liner notes). Chris Young. RCA Records. 2011.
[show] v t e
Chris Young
Categories: 2011 albumsChris Young (musician) albumsRCA Records albumsAlbums produced by James Stroud

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Marion Dix Sullivan -- Heden, 20:45:34 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Marion Dix Sullivan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Marion Dix Sullivan (born 1802, d. 1860) (fl. 1840–50) was an American songwriter and composer. She was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire, the daughter of Timothy Dix and Abigail Wilkins and the sister of General John Adams Dix of New York.[1] She married John Whiting Sullivan in 1825 and had one son, John Henry, who died of drowning in 1858.[2]

Little is known about her background,[3] but she was considered the first American woman to write a "hit" song, "The Blue Juniata," which was referenced by Mark Twain in his autobiography.[4] The song was recorded in 1937 by Roy Rogers and the early Sons of the Pioneers.


Cover of "The Blue Juniata" (1844)
Marion Dix wrote ballads and sacred songs. Selected works include:

The Blue Juniata (1844)
Marion Day (1844)
Jessee Cook, the Lily of the Wood (1844)
Oh! Boatman, Row Me O'er the Stream (1846)
Cold Blew the Night Wing : The Wanderer (1846)
The Cold Has Bound the Joyous Stream (1846)
The Evening Bugle (1847)
The Field of Monterey (1848)
Mary Lindsey (1848)
The Strawberry Girl (1850)
We Cross the Prairies of Old (1854)
The Kansas Home (1854)
Juniata Ballads, compilation (1855)
Bible Songs, compilation (1856)
Bright Alfarata (1871?)[5]
Lightly On
Evening Hymn to the Savior
The Flowers that Bloom in the Spring
Jump up ^ McCaskey,John Piersol, Franklin Square Song Collection: Two Hundred Favorite Songs, Volume 5, retrieved 27 June 2014
Jump up ^ Burials and inscriptions in the Walnut Street Cemetery of Brookline, Brookline Historical Society, Brookline, Mass., retrieved 27 June 2014
Jump up ^ Sadie, Julie Anne; Samuel, Rhian (1994). The Norton/Grove dictionary of women composers (Digitized online by GoogleBooks). Retrieved 12 November 2010.
Jump up ^ Pendle, Karin (1991). Women & music: a history.
Jump up ^ Sullivan, Marion Dix, retrieved 27 June 2014
External links[edit]
Sons Of The Pioneers - Blue Juniata (1937) from YouTube.
Authority control
WorldCat VIAF: 68824457 LCCN: nr95047474

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Paolo Amodio -- Heden, 20:44:32 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Paolo Amodio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paolo Amodio
Personal information
Full name Paolo Amodio
Date of birth 28 May 1973 (age 42)
Place of birth Luxembourg
Playing position Striker
Senior career*
Years Team Apps† (Gls)†
1992-2001 Jeunesse Esch
2001-2002 Progrès Niedercorn
2002-2005 Jeunesse Esch
2005-2009 FC Differdange 03
National team‡
1996-1998 Luxembourg 9 (1)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.
† Appearances (goals)
‡ National team caps and goals correct as of 8 March 2012
Paolo Amodio (born 28 May 1973) is a Luxembourg players. Now retired from playing,

International career[edit]
He is a member of the Luxembourg national football team from 1996 to 1998.

External links[edit]
Paolo Amodio at National-Football-Teams.com

Flag of LuxembourgSoccer icon This biographical article relating to Luxembourgish association football is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: 1973 birthsLiving peopleLuxembourgian footballersLuxembourg international footballersJeunesse Esch playersLuxembourgian football biography stubs

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Bronwyn Calver -- Heden, 20:42:59 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Bronwyn Calver
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bronwyn Calver
Personal information
Full name Bronwyn Lianne Calver
Batting style Right-handed
Bowling style Right-arm Fast medium
International information
National side
Test debut (cap 135) 6 August 1998 v England women
Last Test 21 August 1998 v England women
ODI debut (cap 65) 17 January 1991 v New Zealand women
Last ODI 25 July 1998 v Ireland women
Domestic team information
Years Team
1982/83 - 1994/95 Australian Capital Territory women's cricket team
1996/97 - 2003/04 New South Wales women's cricket team
Career statistics
Competition WTest WODI WNCL
Matches 3 34 80
Runs scored 80 534 509
Batting average 26.66 23.12 18.85
100s/50s 0/0 0/1 0/2
Top score 28 81* 61*
Balls bowled 814 1654 4230
Wickets 5 29 95
Bowling average 47.40 22.37 22.95
5 wickets in innings 0 0 0
10 wickets in match 0 0 0
Best bowling 3/62 4/4 3/18
Catches/stumpings 2/- 8/– 24/–
Source: CricInfo, 23 May 2014
Bronwyn Lianne Calver (born 22 September 1969 in Footscray, Melbourne, Victoria)[1] is a former Australian cricketer.

She played for the Australia Capital Territory from 1982, aged 13, until 1995, playing 61 matches, and scoring 1518 runs and taking 100 wickets.[2] She then played for New South Wales from 1996 until 2004, playing 80 matches and scoring 509 runs and taking 95 wickets.[2] She is believed to be the first player to score 1,500 domestic runs and take 100 domestic wickets.[2]

Calver played her first international match in 1991 against New Zealand, and continued until the end of the 1998 Women's Ashes series. Playing three Tests and 34 One Day Internationals. She played in the winning Australian team in the 1997 Women's Cricket World Cup.

The "Bronwyn Calver medal" is awarded to the ACT Meteors player of the year.[3][4]

Jump up ^ Player profile: Bronwyn Calver from ESPNcricinfo
^ Jump up to: a b c Bronwyn Calver - Australia Women, 1991-1998 retrieved 5 June 2008
Jump up ^ Gaskin, Lee (3 May 2014). "Cricket ACT signals interest in women's Twenty20 Big Bash League". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 23 May 2014.
Jump up ^ Polkinghorne, David (7 May 2014). "Rene Farrell gets Cricket Australia contract". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 23 May 2014.
External links[edit]
Bronwyn Calver at southernstars.org.au
[show] v t e
Australia squad – 1993 Women's Cricket World Cup (semi-finalists)
[show] v t e
Australia squad – 1997 Women's Cricket World Cup (fourth title)

Stub icon 1 Stub icon 2 This biographical article related to Australian cricket is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: Australian women cricketersAustralia women Test cricketersAustralia women One Day International cricketersCricketers from Victoria (Australia)Sportspeople from Melbourne1969 birthsLiving peopleAustralian cricket biography stubs

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Ringstreaked guitarfish -- Heden, 20:41:58 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Ringstreaked guitarfish
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ringstreaked guitarfish
Rhinobatos hynnicephalus.jpg
Conservation status

Near Threatened (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Order: Rajiformes
Family: Rhinobatidae
Genus: Rhinobatos
Species: R. hynnicephalus
Binomial name
Rhinobatos hynnicephalus
J. Richardson, 1846
The ringstreaked guitarfish (Rhinobatos hynnicephalus) is a species of fish in the Rhinobatidae family found in China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are open seas, shallow seas, coral reefs, and estuarine waters.[1]

Ringstreaked guitarfish have paired reproductive organs, and are ovoviviparous, with a 1:1 sex ratio[2]

Jump up ^ Compagno, L.J.V., Ishihara, H. & Marshall, A.D. 2005. Rhinobatos hynnicephalus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 3 August 2007.
Jump up ^ Shuyuan, Qiu and Wenbin, Zheng. Reproductive biology of guitar, Rhinobatos hynnicephalus. Environmental Biology of Fishes Volume 38, Numbers 1-3, 81-93, doi:10.1007/BF00842906
Stub icon This Rajiformes article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: IUCN Red List near threatened speciesRajiformes stubsRhinobatos

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Parch, Mazandaran -- Heden, 19:54:08 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Parch, Mazandaran
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Parch is located in Iran ParchParch
Coordinates: 36°32′25″N 53°45′49″ECoordinates: 36°32′25″N 53°45′49″E
Country Iran
Province Mazandaran
County Behshahr
Bakhsh Yaneh Sar
Rural District Ashrestaq
Population (2006)
• Total 196
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
• Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Parch (Persian: پارچ‎‎, also Romanized as Pārch)[1] is a village in Ashrestaq Rural District, Yaneh Sar District, Behshahr County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 196, in 45 families.[2]

Jump up ^ Parch can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3837694" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
Jump up ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.
[show] v t e
Iran Behshahr County
Stub icon This Behshahr County location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: Populated places in Behshahr CountyBehshahr County geography stubs

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Olga Detenyuk -- Heden, 19:52:39 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Olga Detenyuk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Olga Detenyuk
Personal information
Full name Olga Igoryevna Detenyuk
Nationality Russia
Born 23 June 1993 (age 22)
Vladivostok, Russia
Height 1.73 m (5 ft 8 in)
Sport Swimming
Strokes Breaststroke
Medal record[hide]
Women's swimming
Competitor for Russia
World Junior Championships
Gold medal – first place 2008 Monterrey 200 m breaststroke
European Junior Championships
Bronze medal – third place 2009 Prague 200 m breaststroke
Youth Olympic Games
Silver medal – second place 2010 Singapore 4×100 m medley
Olga Igoryevna Detenyuk (Russian: Ольга Игоревна Детенюк; born June 23, 1993 in Vladivostok) is a Russian swimmer, who specialized in breaststroke events.[1] Detenyuk set a games record of 2:25.19 to claim the 200 m breaststroke title at the 2008 FINA Youth World Swimming Championships in Monterrey, Mexico.[2] She also won a silver medal, as a member of the Russian team, in the girls' 4×100 m medley relay at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics in Singapore.[3]

Detenyuk qualified for the women's 200 m breaststroke, as Russia's youngest swimmer (aged 15), at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, by clearing a FINA A-standard entry time of 2:26.15 from the Russian Championships in Moscow.[4] She challenged seven other swimmers on the fourth heat, including defending Olympic champion Amanda Beard of the United States. She finished the race in seventh spot by 0.17 of a second behind Beard in 2:27.87. Detenyuk missed the semifinals by a six tenth margin (0.60), as she shared a twentieth-place tie with Great Britain's Kirsty Balfour in the preliminary heats.[5]

Jump up ^ "Olga Detenyuk". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
Jump up ^ "World Youth Championships: Dagny Knutson Makes It Five!". Swimming World Magazine. 13 July 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
Jump up ^ "Youth Olympics Games: Boglarka Kapas, Chad Le Clos Post World-Ranked Times in Victory". Swimming World Magazine. 16 August 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
Jump up ^ "Olympic Cut Sheet – Women's 200m Breaststroke" (PDF). Swimming World Magazine. p. 71. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
Jump up ^ "Women's 200m Breaststroke Heat 4". Beijing 2008. NBC Olympics. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
External links[edit]
NBC Olympics Profile
Stub icon 1 Stub icon 2 This biographical article related to a Russian swimmer is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: 1993 birthsLiving peopleRussian swimmersOlympic swimmers of RussiaSwimmers at the 2008 Summer OlympicsSwimmers at the 2010 Summer Youth OlympicsFemale breaststroke swimmersPeople from VladivostokRussian swimming biography stubs

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Rival Turf! -- Heden, 18:48:35 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Rival Turf!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rival Turf!
Rival Turf
North American cover art of Rival Turf!
Developer(s) Jaleco
Publisher(s) Jaleco
Designer(s) Ryoichi Kuramochi
Programmer(s) Takeshi Ohara
Hitoshi Sekiya
Manabu Shirato
Artist(s) Nobuyuki Kuramochi
Keiichi Maekawa
Tadahiko Watanabe
Masahito Takahashi
Composer(s) Yasuhiko Takashiba
Atsuyoshi Isemura
Series Rushing Beat
Platform(s) Super Famicom/SNES, Virtual Console
Release date(s) Super Famicom/SNES
JP March 27, 1992
NA April 23, 1992
EU 1993
Wii Virtual Console
JP December 7, 2010
NA May 2, 2011
PAL October 8, 2010
Wii U Virtual Console
JP September 30, 2015
NA May 28, 2015
Genre(s) Beat'em up
Mode(s) Single-player, Co-op, Versus
Rival Turf!, released in Japan as Rushing Beat (Japanese: ラッシング・ビート?), is a beat'em up video game that was released by Jaleco in 1992 for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and later on Nintendo's Virtual Console. The game is the first installment in the Rushing Beat trilogy, which also includes Brawl Brothers and The Peace Keepers, although the games were localized as unrelated titles in North America.

Contents [hide]
1 Plot
2 Gameplay
2.1 Japanese version
2.2 Characters
3 Localization
4 Reception
5 References
6 External links
Jack Flak's girlfriend Heather has been kidnapped by Big Al and his gang the Street Kings. He enlists the help of his friend, police officer Oswald "Oozie" Nelson to rescue his girlfriend and rid the city from the reign of the Street Kings once and for all. They start out by heading to the sports stadium to find out more information and locate Big Al's hideout.[1]


Flak is using his flying kick attack against Bullet, one of the weakest enemies in Rival Turf!.
The player controls one of two characters: Jack Flak (Rick Norton in Japan) or "Oozie" Nelson (Douglas Bild in Japan) in a one or two player mode, to defeat a plethora of enemies using punches, kicks and various weapons collected throughout the course of the game. The game also includes an "angry" mode where the character becomes temporarily invincible and more powerful after taking too much damage. Moving the character is done using the four-direction controller and each move (attack, jump, special attack) is done using three of the four available buttons near the movement keys.

The game also has a two-player versus mode. In the versus mode, the player who wins two wins out of three rounds wins the entire match.

Japanese version[edit]
One night, Rick Norton is walking down the streets of the city when he was surprised by a gun in the darkness. The mystery man behind the gun said that Norton's sister had an important video tape and was being held hostage. A new stimulant was being sold in epidemic amounts throughout the city and was only first manufactured a few years ago. Realizing that the organization's mystery was shrouded other than their sales of illegal stimulants, Norton has seen the city become slowly devastated over a period of time. He had to go to the city stadium in an attempt to rescue his sister Maria.[2]

Jack Flak/Rick Norton
The hero of the video game who is out to rescue his girlfriend Heather. The flying kick and the back drop are his specialty attacks. In the Japanese version, he is known as Rick Norton and must rescue his sister Maria from the gang.
Oswald "Oozie" Nelson/Douglas Bild
Police officer who likes to use powerful professional wrestling moves. The color of Nelson's skin was darkened somewhat from the Japanese version.
The North American version removed the introductory story the original Japanese game had. It also shortened the ending and removed the credits. When each character died in the Japanese version, their image is replaced with the Japanese word for death (死) while the North American version showed a simple "X" for fighters who are killed. Another feature unique to the Japanese version was the ability to change the number of lives and continues that the player could use.

The fictional city of "Neo Cisco" used in the Japanese version became the real-life city of Los Angeles in the North American version.

Review scores
Publication Score
AllGame 2/5 stars
IGN 4/10 stars[3]
In 2010, Damien McFerran of NintendoLife reviewed the title negatively, calling it "desperately short on originality" with "truly uninspiring gameplay". He supposed that the publisher's main strategy was to capitalize on the lack of two-player functionality in Capcom's superior competing game Final Fight, while simultaneously plagiarizing it. He described the effort as "inferior ... in practically every single way imaginable" to that "infinitely more distinguished" game. He describes the characters as "painfully similar" to and "obvious replicas" of those in Final Fight, though they "look like they've wandered off the set of a Vanilla Ice music video" and have completely unrealistic movements, collision detection, and physics. The only redeeming qualities he found to the entire game are the presence of two-player mode and the ability to run.[4]

In 2011, IGN rated Rival Turf! at 4 out of 10, calling it "an almost entirely forgettable beat-'em-up with a boring premise, bland music and partially broken gameplay". The review laments "stiff animation, a lacking storyline and characters that have no discernable personality"; and the "poor collision detection" is said to define the game as an overall failure at "the most critical component of a brawler". The review states that this game lacks even the minorly distinctive features of its numerous and similar competition, generally summarizing it as being "as vanilla as the brawler genre can be".[3]

In 2010, Nintendo Power also ridiculed the box cover art, saying that "The marketing people on this game actually had a pretty outside-the-box idea, which should have really stayed off the box. After all, who is the target audience going to find more intimidating than thugs their own age?".[5]

Jump up ^ Story of Rival Turf at Giant Bomb
Jump up ^ Story of Rushing Beat at Plala.or.jp
^ Jump up to: a b Thomas, Lucas M. (May 5, 2011). "Rival Turf Review". IGN. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
Jump up ^ McFerran, Damien (October 9, 2010). "Rival Turf!". NintendoLife. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
Jump up ^ "Nintendo Power". No. 3. March 2009. p. 58.
External links[edit]
Rival Turf! at MobyGames
Rushing Beat at Jaleco (Japanese)
Categories: 1992 video gamesBeat 'em upsCooperative video gamesFighting gamesSuper Nintendo Entertainment System gamesVirtual Console gamesVirtual Console games for Wii UVideo games set in CaliforniaMultiplayer and single-player video gamesSide-scrolling beat 'em ups

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Giles Crouch Kellogg -- Heden, 18:47:04 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Giles Crouch Kellogg
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Giles Crouch Kellogg (August 12, 1781 – June 19, 1861) was an American politician.

He was son of Dr. Giles C. and Mary (Catlin) Kellogg, and was born in Hadley, Massachusetts. He graduated from Yale University in 1800. He studied law with Jonathan E. Porter, Esq., was admitted to the bar in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, opened an office in his native place and here spent his life. He was honored by his townsmen with many private and public trusts. For many years he was town clerk and treasurer, and for thirteen years Register of Deeds for Hampshire County. He was often representative to the General Court of Massachusetts, and was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1853. In the War of 1812 he served as an adjutant in one of the Massachusetts regiments. For several years he taught successfully in the Hopkins Academy in Hadley. He died in Hadley, Mass., aged 80.

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the Yale Obituary Record.

Categories: 1781 births1861 deathsYale University alumniPeople from Hadley, MassachusettsMembers of the Massachusetts House of RepresentativesAmerican military personnel of the War of 1812

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India Office Records -- Heden, 18:45:49 01/21/16 Thu [1]

India Office Records
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bombay on the Malabar Coast belonging to the East India Company of England by Jan van Ryne (1754) is held by the collection.
The India Office Records are a very large collection of documents relating to the administration of India from 1600 to 1947, the period spanning Company and British rule in India. The archive is held in London by the British Library and is publicly accessible.

The records come from four main sources: the English and later British East India Company (1600–1858), the Board of Control (1784–1858), the India Office (1858–1947), and the Burma Office (1937–1948). The collection also includes records from many smaller related institutions. Overall, the collection is made up of approximately 175,000 items, including official publications and records, manuscripts, photographs, printed maps and private papers. These items take up approximately nine miles of shelving units.

Contents [hide]
1 Historical background
2 History of the Records
3 Arrangement of the Records
4 Genealogical research in the collection
5 Materials relating to Gandhi
6 See also
7 Notes and references
8 External links
Historical background[edit]
See also: Company rule in India

The British Indian Empire in 1893
The historical scope of the records begins in 1600, when the East India Company was granted exclusive rights to trade in much of Asia, including the entire Indian subcontinent. During its first 100 years, much of the East India Company's energy was involved in maintaining its trade privileges, as it faced competition from domestic and international companies.

Although the East India Company was established as a trading company, it became more and more involved in local affairs in India during the early 18th century, and eventually came to hold large swaths of land in the subcontinent. In the mid-18th century, the Company began to undertake a governmental role in large parts of India, in order to organize the nascent colony to better facilitate trade.

In an effort to increase its own involvement in the administration of India, the British Government passed Pitt's India Act in 1784, which established the Board of Control to direct the East India Company in its governing role.

In 1858, in the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British government abolished the East India Company's right to govern India, and brought the subcontinent directly under the control of the British Empire. The India Office, under the direction of the Secretary of State for India, was established to maintain administrative control over the increasingly important colony. In 1937, a separate Burma Office was established to alleviate some of the India Office's administrative burden.

History of the Records[edit]

East India House in Leadenhall Street was the London headquarters of the East India Company.
The India Office Records themselves have a very interesting history. There were different levels of care for the records over the years, but interest in preserving them was established very early. A “Keeper” of East India Company records was appointed in 1771, with a mission to arrange current records and to preserve historical records.

Toward the end of the East India Company's governance in India, an increasing number of documents were sent to London and incorporated into the records. In fact, it was one of the most documented administrations ever. However, when the control of India was transferred to the India Office, they set up a committee to review the records provided by the East India Company. On the committee's recommendation, more than 300 tons of records were sold as wastepaper. Although this was certainly a great loss to the collection, there is evidence that many of these records were duplications, or contained very little relevant information.

The first attempt to arrange and describe the records occurred in 1879, when George Birdwood published his Report on the old records of the India Office.

In 1947, the year of Indian independence, ownership of the records transferred to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the British government. In 1967, the Office decided to move the records to a new facility on Blackfriars Road, where they were merged with the India Office Library. It was during this transition that the records were transformed into a modern archival collection. A classification system for the records was determined, most of which is still being used.

In 1982, the entire collection was moved to the British Library. They are currently a part of the British Library Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections, and they are administered as Public Records, which means that they are available for public consultation in the British Library Reading Rooms.

Arrangement of the Records[edit]
The classification system for the records was created with two goals: to preserve the original order of the records as much as was possible, and to clarify the administrative history of the records. Each series of records was assigned a letter, from A to Z, and certain series also have descriptive subclasses. The classes are as follows:[1]

A: East India Company: Charters, Deeds, Statutes and Treaties c1550-c1950
B: East India Company: Minutes of the Court of Directors and Court of Proprietors 1599-1858
C: Council of India Minutes and Memoranda 1858-1947
D: East India Company: Minutes and Memoranda of General Committees 1700-1858
E: East India Company: General Correspondence 1602-1859
F: Board of Control Records 1784-1858
G: East India Company Factory Records c1595-1858
H: India Office Home Miscellaneous Series c1600-1900
I: Records relating to other Europeans in India 1475-1824
J&K: East India College, Haileybury, Records, and Records of other institutions 1749-1925
L: India Office Departmental Records
L/AG: India Office: Accountant-General's Records c1601-1974
L/E: India Office: Economic Department Records c1876-1950
L/F: India Office: Financial Department Records c1800-1948
L/I: India Office: Information Department Records 1921-1949
L/L: India Office: Legal Adviser's Records c1550-c1950
L/MAR: India Office: Marine Records c1600-1879
L/MED: India Office: Medical Board Records c1920-1960
L/MIL: India Office: Military Department Records 1708-1959
L/PARL: India Office: Parliamentary Branch Records c1772-1952
L/PO: Secretary of State for India: Private Office Papers 1858-1948
L/PWD: India Office: Public Works Department 1839-1931
L/P&J: India Office: Public and Judicial Department Records 1795-1950
L/P&S: India Office: Political and Secret Department Records 1756-c1950
L/R: India Office: Record Department Papers 1859-1959
L/SUR: India Office: Surveyor's Office Records 1837-1934
L/S&G: India Office: Services and General Department Records c1920-c1970
L/WS: India Office: War Staff Papers 1921-1951
M: Burma Office Records 1932-1948
N: Returns of Baptisms, Marriages and Burials 1698-1969
O: Biographical Series 1702-1948
P: Proceedings and Consultations 1702-1945
Q: Commission, Committee and Conference Records c1895-1947
R: Records received in London and incorporated in India Office Records
R/1: India: Crown Representative: Political Department Indian States Records 1880-1947
R/2: India: Crown Representative: Indian States Residencies Records c1789-1947
R/3: India: Viceroy's Private Office Papers and other Government Records 1899-1948
R/4: India: British High Commission Cemetery Records c1870-1967
R/5: Nepal: Kathmandu Residency Records c1792-1872
R/8: Burma: Records of the Governor's Office 1942-1947
R/9: Malaya: Malacca Orphan Chamber and Council of Justice Records c1685-1835
R/10: China: Canton Factory Records 1623-1841
R/12: Afghanistan: Kabul Legation Records 1923-1948
R/15: Gulf States: Records of the Bushire, Bahrain, Kuwait, Muscat and Trucial States Agencies 1763-1951
R/19: Egypt: Records of the Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Agencies 1832-1870
R/20: Aden: Records of the British Administrations in Aden 1837-1967
S: Linguistic Survey of India c1900-c1930
V: India Office Records Official Publications Series c1760-1957
W, X & Y: India Office Records Map Collections c1700-c1960
Z: Original Registers and Indexes to Records Series c1700-1950
Genealogical research in the collection[edit]
The collection is useful for genealogical and family history research, particularly for those who have ancestors who were Anglo-Indian or who were born or lived in British India. Recognising this, the British Library has developed resources to facilitate this process, including biographical indexes, professional research services and close links with the Families In British India Society.

The East India Company, the Board of Control and the India Office kept extensive ecclesiastical records concerning British people in India. These records, including documentation of births, baptisms, marriages, and burials are all contained in the “N” series of the collection. For those who know the occupation of their ancestor in India, the British Library provides a guide to records produced by various positions, facilitating the discovery of material that an ancestor created in the course of his work for the British administration in India. Most of these records can be found in the “L” series.

Materials relating to Gandhi[edit]

This section includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (December 2008)
The collection can be used to bolster research on almost any topic involving the history of India from 1600-1947 by providing unique information relating to the British administration's understanding of events. Perhaps one of the most interesting parts of the collection is the set of records pertaining to Mohandas Gandhi. Much is known about Gandhi's life and ideas through many sources, but these records provide interesting insight into the development of his ideas, as well as his personal life. Information on the Indian administration's feelings and frustrations concerning Gandhi is also in the records.

The material relating to Gandhi can be found in folders R/3/1/289-334. There are two particularly interesting sets of documents in this series. The first of these are administrative records containing reactions to Gandhi and plans concerning his activities. Most of these were originally classified as “Most Secret,” “Very Secret,” or “Top Secret.” (This detail in itself gives insight into the administration's increasing concern with secrecy, as well as their fear of Gandhi and the threat he posed to British authority.) Many of these records are proposals for responses to Gandhi's actions, including plans to prepare for riots in the event of his death during one of his fasts.

The second set of documents consists of correspondence to and from Gandhi. Gandhi wrote extensively to various British government officials, and there are 93 letters from Gandhi, as well as 48 letters to Gandhi from the administration personnel. Many of the letters currently held in the collection are copies from originals, but as the records have been so well-kept in the 20th century, their authenticity is not in question. The time period of the correspondence is 1922 to 1945.

Many of the letters from Gandhi express criticism of British policies in India and reveal Gandhi's sophisticated analysis of world politics, as well as his commitment to peace. In many, he appeals to the British to work with him to end the oppression of the Indian people.

Perhaps the most unusual of Gandhi's letters in the collection is a copy of a letter sent to Adolf Hitler, in which Gandhi expresses admiration for Hitler's passion for his nation, but urges him to seek non-violent means to address Germany's concerns. He also refers to some of Hitler's writings as “monstrous,” and makes it clear that he has no interest in seeking German aid for the end of British rule in India.

The most personal of letters from Gandhi in the collection relate to the illness and death of his wife in 1944. In these letters, one can see Gandhi's frustration at watching Kasturba Gandhi's condition worsen as he was powerless to help her. He repeatedly appealed to the British to send medical aid, including an Ayurvedic physician, and when it became clear that she would not survive, he lashed out at them, complaining that her treatment was inadequate.

Most of the letters written to Gandhi contained in the collection are accusatory, complaining that Gandhi did not live up to his rhetoric about non-violence. The letters reflect a belief that Gandhi's fasts and other dramatic forms of protest stirred up violence among the Indian population. Many of the letters also deny Gandhi's accusations that the British government was involved in systematic repression of the Indian people and failed to live up to its role as a steward of India and the Indian people.

There is also one letter in the collection from Franklin Roosevelt, who was the President of the United States at the time. In the letter, he acknowledges Gandhi's concerns about India, but suggests that World War II and the defeat of the Axis powers should take precedence. He asks Gandhi to support the British regime so that they will not be forced to divide their attention.

See also[edit]
Families In British India Society
Historiography of the British Empire
Notes and references[edit]
Jump up ^ "India Office Records: Arrangement of the Records, and List of Classes". www.bl.uk. The British Library Board. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
India Office Records. British Library, London.
Moir, Martin. A General Guide to the India Office Records. London: The British Library, 1988.
Seton, Rosemary. The Indian "Mutiny" 1857-58: A Guide to Source Material in the India Office Library and Records. London: The British Library, 1986.
Singh, Amar Kaur Jasbir. Gandhi and Civil Disobedience: Documents in the India Office Records 1922-1946. London: India Office Library and Records, 1980.
External links[edit]
India Office Records hub
India Office Family History Search - limited search of ecclesiastical and biographical records
India Office Private Papers: Scope and Catalogues
Search the India Office Records at Access 2 Archives
Coordinates: 51.5297°N 0.1269°W

Categories: Archives in LondonOfficial document archivesBritish East India CompanyBritish IndiaBritish LibraryBritish Library collections

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Charles David Cuming -- Heden, 18:43:55 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Charles David Cuming
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Charles David Cuming (April 7, 1900 – April 27, 1995[1]) was a political figure in Saskatchewan. He represented Souris-Estevan from 1944 to 1948 in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan as a Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) member.

He was born in Inchkeith, Saskatchewan and educated in Inchkeith, in Kipling and in Calgary, Alberta. Cuming was a director for the Saskatchewan section of the United Farmers of Canada and also served on the local school board. He was defeated when he ran for reelection to the provincial assembly in 1948. After leaving politics, Cuming served as sheriff for the Estevan district until he retired in 1965. He died in Regina at the age of 95.[1]

^ Jump up to: a b "Hansard" (PDF). Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. May 10, 1995. Retrieved 2012-05-24.

Stub icon This article about a Saskatchewan politician is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: Saskatchewan Co-operative Commonwealth Federation MLAs1900 births1995 deathsSaskatchewan school board membersSaskatchewan politician stubs

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Otto Peltzer -- Heden, 18:42:48 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Otto Peltzer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the German American politician and playwright, see Otto Peltzer (politician).
Otto Peltzer
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-05769, Otto Peltzer.jpg
Peltzer in 1928
Personal information
Born 8 March 1900
Drage, Steinburg, Germany
Died 11 August 1970 (aged 70)
Sport Athletics
Event(s) 200–1500 m, hurdles
Achievements and titles
Personal best(s) 200 m – 22.1 (1925)
400 m – 48.8 (1925)
800 m – 1:50.9 (1926)
1500 m – 3:51.0 (1926)
400 mH – 54.8 (1927)[1][2]
Otto Paul Eberhard Peltzer (8 March 1900 – 11 August 1970) was a German middle distance runner who set world records in the 1920s. Over the 800 m Peltzer improved Ted Meredith's long-standing record by 0.3 seconds to 1:51.6 min in London in July 1926. Over the 1000 m he set a world record of 2:25.8 in Paris in July 1927, and over 1500 m Peltzer broke Paavo Nurmi's world record (3:52.6) and set a new one at 3:51.0 in Berlin in September 1926. Peltzer was the only athlete to have held the 800 m and the 1500 m world records simultaneously, until Sebastian Coe matched the feat over fifty years later.[3]

Born in Ellernbrook-Drage in Holstein, Peltzer overcame childhood ill-health to become a successful athlete, winning his first German championship at age twenty-two. He started university in Munich in 1918, joining the TSV 1860 club, where he was nicknamed "Otto der Seltsame" (Otto the Strange). He continued in Munich, receiving his doctorate in 1925. In 1926 he was one of a group of German athletes invited to the AAA Championships at Stamford Bridge stadium in London, where he won the 800 m, beating Britain's Douglas Lowe, who had won the event at the 1924 Olympic Games which, along with the 1920 Games, Germany had been barred from entering. In 1926, a specially arranged 1500 m race between Peltzer, Paavo Nurmi of Finland, Edvin Wide of Sweden and Herbert Bocher of Germany took place in Berlin which was won by Peltzer in a new world record time.[4]

Shortly before the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam, to which German athletes were again allowed to enter with Peltzer elected as team leader, Peltzer was injured in an accident while playing handball. Although he recovered enough to take part in the 800 m heats, he failed to qualify for the final.[5] In 1932 he was team captain, but poor arrangements left the German team trying to run with spiked shoes on the hard Olympic track. Peltzer made the final, but did not finish.[4][5]

Peltzer was often persecuted for his homosexuality.[6] In 1933 he joined the Nazi Party and the SS. However, in June 1935 he was sentenced to 18 months imprisonment for 'homosexual offences with youths'.[7] He was released early on condition that he would end his involvement in sport, but was rearrested in 1937. After spending time in Denmark, Finland (where he slept rough and contracted bronchitis) and Sweden, he returned to Germany in 1941 having been assured that the charges against him would be dropped. However, he was arrested and sent to KZ Mauthausen, where he remained until the camp was liberated on 5 May 1945.[1][4][8]

With homosexuality remaining a criminal offence in 1950s Germany, and Peltzer in conflict with the German Athletic Association (DLV) and Carl Diem,[9] Peltzer's opportunities to coach athletics were limited in Germany. He obtained a commission from a German newspaper to report on the Melbourne Olympics, and after the Games tried unsuccessfully to get work with various national athletics organisations. He eventually came to India, coaching in the national athletics stadium in New Delhi, and founded the Olympic Youth Delhi club, later renamed the Otto Peltzer Memorial Athletic Club in his honour.[1][4]

Following a heart attack in 1967, Peltzer was persuaded to return to Germany, and was treated in hospital in Holstein. After attending an athletics meeting in Eutin, Schleswig-Holstein, Peltzer collapsed and was found dead on a path towards the car park.[1][10]

In 2000 the DLV established the Otto Peltzer Medal given to outstanding athletes.[1]

^ Jump up to: a b c d e Otto Peltzer. sports-reference.com
Jump up ^ Otto Peltzer. trackfield.brinkster.net
Jump up ^ Raevuori, Antero (1997). Paavo Nurmi, juoksijoiden kuningas (in Finnish) (2nd ed.). WSOY. p. 247. ISBN 978-9510218501.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Otto the Strange – the Champion who defied the Nazis, The Observer Sport Monthly, July 2008 No 101
^ Jump up to: a b The Historic Series on Olympic Running (III): Men’s 800m. Scc-events.com (25 August 2015). Retrieved on 2015-09-11.
Jump up ^ Riordan, James; Arnd Krüger (1999). International Politics of Sport in the Twentieth Century. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-419-21160-8.
Jump up ^ Herzer, Manfred: Dr. Otto Peltzer – "Ein Pädophiler überlebt den Nazi-Terror," in: Capri. Zeitschrift für schwule Geschichte, Nr. 27 (December 1999), pp. 32–47
Jump up ^ Running Cultures: Racing in Time and Space, author John Bale 2003 ISBN 0-7146-5535-X pp. 111–112
Jump up ^ [1] Sportswissenschaft No 3 2004
Jump up ^ The true friends of India. The Hindu, 7 March 2005
External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Otto Peltzer.
Photos of Dr O. Peltzer running in New Zealand, 1930
Preceded by
United States Ted Meredith Men's 800 metres World Record Holder
3 July 1926 – 14 July 1928 Succeeded by
France Séra Martin
Preceded by
Finland Paavo Nurmi Men's 1500 metres World Record Holder
11 September 1926 – 4 October 1930 Succeeded by
France Jules Ladoumegue
Preceded by
— European Record Holder Men's 800m
3 July 1926 – 13 July 1928 Succeeded by
France Séra Martin
Preceded by
Finland Paavo Nurmi European Record Holder Men's 1500m
11 September 1926 – 4 October 1930 Succeeded by
France Jules Ladoumegue
Authority control
WorldCat VIAF: 32739319 LCCN: n2001095852 ISNI: 0000 0000 4617 7742 GND: 116076496
Categories: 1900 births1970 deathsPeople from SteinburgPeople from the Province of Schleswig-HolsteinLGBT sportspeople from GermanyGay sportsmenLGBT track and field athletesGerman middle-distance runnersNazi Party membersSS personnelPeople convicted under Germany's Paragraph 175University of California, Berkeley alumniFormer world record holders in athletics (track and field)Olympic athletes of GermanyAthletes (track and field) at the 1928 Summer OlympicsAthletes (track and field) at the 1932 Summer OlympicsMauthausen-Gusen concentration camp survivorsAthletics in India

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Neil R. McMillen -- Heden, 18:41:42 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Neil R. McMillen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Neil R. McMillen is an American historian, and professor emeritus at University of Southern Mississippi.[1]

Contents [hide]
1 Life
2 Awards
3 Works
4 References
5 External links
He graduated from the University of Southern Mississippi with a BA and MA, and from Vanderbilt University with a Ph.D. His papers are held at University of Southern Mississippi.[2]

He lives in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, in the winter and on Lake Superior in Upper Michigan in the summer.

1990 Bancroft Prize
1990 Gustavus Myers Prize
1990 McLemore Prize
1990 Pulitzer Prize finalist
"The American Reaction to the Rise of Nazi Germany, March, 1933 - March, 1934" (USM thesis, 1963)
Thomas Jefferson: Philosopher of Freedom. Chicago: Rand McNally. 1973. ISBN 978-0-528-82487-6.
Charles Grier Sellers, Henry Farnham May, Neil R. McMillen (1974). A synopsis of American history. Chicago: Rand McNally College Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-929587-74-5. (7th Edition 1992)
Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 1989. ISBN 978-0-252-06156-1.
The Citizens' Council: Organized Resistance to the Second Reconstruction, 1954-64. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 1994. ISBN 978-0-252-06441-8. (1st edition 1971)
Neil R. McMillen, ed. (1997). Remaking Dixie: The Impact of World War II on the American South. Jackson, Miss.: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-0-87805-928-7.
Geoffrey Jensen, Andrew Wiest, eds. (2001). "World War II and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement". War in the age of technology: myriad faces of modern armed conflict. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-4251-8.
Jump up ^ http://www.usm.edu/history/mcmillen.php
Jump up ^ http://www.lib.usm.edu/~archives/mcmillen.htm
External links[edit]
Authority control
VIAF: 32123051 ISNI: 0000 0000 2095 1074 SUDOC: 029924707 BNF: cb12741349w (data)

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L-threonine dehydrogenase -- Heden, 18:39:56 01/21/16 Thu [1]

L-threonine dehydrogenase
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
L-Threonine dehydrogenase
EC number
CAS number 9067-99-6
IntEnz IntEnz view
ExPASy NiceZyme view
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO
L-Threonine dehydrogenase
Symbol TDH
Entrez 157739
HUGO 15547
RefSeq NM_152566
UniProt Q8IZJ6
Other data
EC number
Locus Chr. 8 p23.1
L-Threonine dehydrogenase is an enzyme that facilitates the catabolism of threonine. It catalyses its conversion to glycine via 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate with concomitant reduction of NAD+.

Epperly BR, Dekker EE (April 1991). "L-threonine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Identification of an active site cysteine residue and metal ion studies". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (10): 6086–92. PMID 2007567.
Edgar AJ (October 2002). "The human L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase gene is an expressed pseudogene". BMC Genet. 3: 18. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-3-18. PMC 131051. PMID 12361482.
Stub icon This biochemistry article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
[show] v t e
Metabolism: Protein metabolism, synthesis and catabolism enzymes
[show] v t e
Oxidoreductases: alcohol oxidoreductases (EC 1.1)
Categories: Genes on human chromosome 8Biochemistry stubs

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Nesh, Afghanistan -- Heden, 18:38:51 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Nesh, Afghanistan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2011)
Nesh is located in Afghanistan NeshNesh
Location in Afghanistan
Coordinates: 32°25′39″N 65°38′27″ECoordinates: 32°25′39″N 65°38′27″E
Country Afghanistan
Province Kandahar Province
District Nesh District
Elevation 4,941 ft (1,506 m)
Time zone UTC+4:30
Nesh (also: Nïsh, Naish) is a village and the center of Nesh District, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. It is located on 32.4275°N 65.6408°E at 1,506 m altitude.

Stub icon This Kandahar Province, Afghanistan location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: Populated places in Kandahar ProvinceAfghanistan geography stubs

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Manila Metro Rail Transit Line 7 -- Heden, 18:37:46 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Manila Metro Rail Transit Line 7
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
MRT Line 7
Type Rapid transit
System Manila Universal LRT System
Status Approved
Locale Metro Manila and Bulacan
Termini North Avenue
Stations 14
Services 1
Daily ridership 448,000 (est.)
Opened TBA
Owner Universal LRT Corporation
Universal LRT Corporation

Department of Transportation and Communications
Line length 22.8 km
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge
Electrification Third rail
[hide]Route map



Sacred Heart


Mindanao Avenue

Regalado Avenue

Doña Carmen



Don Antonio

Tandang Sora

University Avenue

Quezon Memorial

North Avenue LRT1
This diagram: view talk edit
The Manila Metro Rail Transit Line 7 (MRT-7) is a proposed rapid transit line in Metro Manila in the Philippines. If completed, the line would be 22.8 km long with 14 stations. The line has been projected running in a northeast direction, traversing Quezon City and a part of North Caloocan in Metro Manila before ending in the city of San Jose del Monte in Bulacan province.

The MRT-7 project will cost an estimated US$ 1.54 billion or PHP 62.7 billion.[1] Under the proposal, it will have a combined 44-km of road and rail transportation project from the Bocaue exit of the North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) to the intersection of North Avenue and Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). The 22-km, 6-lane asphalt road will connect the NLEX to the major transportation hub development in San Jose del Monte.

Universal LRT Corporation, which was composed of a consortium of the Tranzen Group, EEI Corporation and SM Prime Holdings and led by former Finance Secretary Roberto de Ocampo submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Philippine Department of Transportation in 2002. In June 2007, DOTC presented a Swiss Challenge in which four business firms submitted their counter proposal. In January 2008, DOTC announced that the ULC proposal emerged as winner and the contract was signed. San Miguel Corporation acquired a majority stake in Universal LRT Corporation (ULC) in October 2010.[2]

In May 2009, The Investment Coordination Committee (ICC) of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) approved the MRT-7 project. Construction of MRT-7 should have commenced in January 2010, but has been postponed several times since then.[3]

In April 2015, San Miguel Corporation announced that it will begin construction of the MRT 7 by the middle of 2016.[4] It is expected to be completed by 2018.[1]

The proposed stations (listed south to north) are:

Station City
North Avenue Quezon City
Quezon Memorial
University Avenue
Tandang Sora
Don Antonio
Doña Carmen
Regalado Highway
Mindanao Avenue
Sacred Heart
Tala Caloocan
Araneta San Jose del Monte, Bulacan
See also[edit]
Metro Manila Rapid Transit
LRT Line 1
LRT Line 2
MRT Line 3
LRT Line 4
LRT Line 6
PNR Metro South Commuter Line
List of rail transit stations in the Greater Manila Area
Manila Light Rail Transit System
Metro Rail Transit Corporation
Philippine National Railways
Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC)
Transportation in the Philippines
^ Jump up to: a b "SMC vows to finish MRT 7 project by 2018". Public-Private Partnership Center. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
Jump up ^ "Infrastructure". San Miguel Corporation. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
Jump up ^ "Construction of MRT-7 seen to start in 2014". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 29, 2013.
Jump up ^ Lee, Cassandra (20 April 2015). "San Miguel to start building MRT7 by mid-2016". Interaksyon. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
[show] v t e
Transportation in the Philippines
[show] v t e
Greater Manila Area Rail Transit stations
[show] v t e
Urban Rail Transit in Southeast Asia
Categories: Rapid transit in the PhilippinesProposed public transportation in the PhilippinesRail transport in Metro ManilaTransportation in Bulacan

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William F. Waldow -- Heden, 18:36:09 01/21/16 Thu [1]

William F. Waldow
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2014)

William F. Waldow, Congressman from New York
William Frederick Waldow (August 26, 1882 – April 16, 1930) was a United States Representative from New York. Born in Buffalo, he attended the common schools, apprenticed as a plumber, and later engaged as a plumbing contractor. He was elected a member of the board of aldermen of Buffalo in 1912 and 1913 and was a member of the New York Republican State committee in 1916.

Waldow was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-fifth Congress, holding office from March 4, 1917 to March 3, 1919. He was unsuccessful for reelection in 1918 to the Sixty-sixth Congress and resumed former business pursuits. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1920 and was sheriff of Erie County from 1921 to 1923. He died in Snyder (a suburb of Buffalo) in 1930; interment was in Forest Lawn Cemetery.

William F. Waldow at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
William F. Waldow at Find a Grave
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Daniel A. Driscoll Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 42nd congressional district
1917–1918 Succeeded by
James M. Mead

Stub icon This article about a member of the United States House of Representatives from New York State is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: 1882 births1930 deathsAmerican plumbersMembers of the United States House of Representatives from New YorkNew York RepublicansPeople from Buffalo, New YorkRepublican Party members of the United States House of RepresentativesNew York United States Representative stubs

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SCG2 -- Heden, 18:34:48 01/21/16 Thu [1]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Secretogranin II
Symbols SCG2 ; CHGC; EM66; SN; SgII
External IDs OMIM: 118930 MGI: 103033 HomoloGene: 2591 GeneCards: SCG2 Gene
[show]Gene ontology
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7857 20254
Ensembl ENSG00000171951 ENSMUSG00000050711
UniProt P13521 Q03517
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003469 NM_009129
RefSeq (protein) NP_003460 NP_033155
Location (UCSC) Chr 2:
223.6 – 223.6 Mb Chr 1:
79.43 – 79.44 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
v t e
SCG2, also called secretogranin II (chromogranin C), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SCG2 gene.[1]

Contents [hide]
1 Function
2 See also
3 Further reading
4 References
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. Studies in rodents suggest that the full-length protein, secretogranin II, is involved in the packaging or sorting of peptide hormones and neuropeptides into secretory vesicles. The full-length protein is cleaved to produce the active peptide secretoneurin, which exerts chemotaxic effects on specific cell types, and EM66, whose function is unknown.[2]

See also[edit]
Further reading[edit]
Kirchmair R, Gander R, Egger M, et al. (2004). "The neuropeptide secretoneurin acts as a direct angiogenic cytokine in vitro and in vivo.". Circulation 109 (6): 777–83. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000112574.07422.C1. PMID 14970115.
Ozawa H, Takata K (1995). "The granin family--its role in sorting and secretory granule formation.". Cell Struct. Funct. 20 (6): 415–20. doi:10.1247/csf.20.415. PMID 8825061.
Huttner WB, Gerdes HH, Rosa P (1991). "The granin (chromogranin/secretogranin) family.". Trends Biochem. Sci. 16 (1): 27–30. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(91)90012-K. PMID 2053134.
Stemberger K, Pallhuber J, Doblinger A, et al. (2004). "Secretoneurin in the human aqueous humor and the absence of an effect of frequently used eye drops on the levels.". Peptides 25 (12): 2115–8. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2004.08.010. PMID 15572199.
Scammell JG, Reddy S, Valentine DL, et al. (2000). "Isolation and characterization of the human secretogranin II gene promoter.". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 75 (1): 8–15. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(99)00269-7. PMID 10648883.
Kähler CM, Schratzberger P, Kaufmann G, et al. (2002). "Transendothelial migration of leukocytes and signalling mechanisms in response to the neuropeptide secretoneurin.". Regul. Pept. 105 (1): 35–46. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(01)00379-2. PMID 11853870.
Beranova-Giorgianni S, Zhao Y, Desiderio DM, Giorgianni F (2006). "Phosphoproteomic analysis of the human pituitary.". Pituitary 9 (2): 109–20. doi:10.1007/s11102-006-8916-x. PMID 16807684.
Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, et al. (2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.". Cell 125 (4): 801–14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569.
Kato A, Kammen-Jolly K, Fischer-Colbie R, et al. (2000). "Co-distribution patterns of chromogranin B-like immunoreactivity with chromogranin A and secretoneurin within the human brainstem.". Brain Res. 852 (2): 444–52. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(99)02229-5. PMID 10678772.
Schrott-Fischer A, Bitsche M, Humpel C, et al. (2009). "Chromogranin peptides in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.". Regul. Pept. 152 (1-3): 13–21. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2008.07.009. PMID 18721831.
Fischer-Colbrie R, Kirchmair R, Kähler CM, et al. (2005). "Secretoneurin: a new player in angiogenesis and chemotaxis linking nerves, blood vessels and the immune system.". Curr. Protein Pept. Sci. 6 (4): 373–85. doi:10.2174/1389203054546334. PMID 16101435.
Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, et al. (2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4.". Nature 434 (7034): 724–31. doi:10.1038/nature03466. PMID 15815621.
Lankat-Buttgereit B, Müller S, Schmidt H, et al. (2008). "Knockdown of Pdcd4 results in induction of proprotein convertase 1/3 and potent secretion of chromogranin A and secretogranin II in a neuroendocrine cell line.". Biol. Cell 100 (12): 703–15. doi:10.1042/BC20080052. PMID 18549351.
Stridsberg M, Eriksson B, Janson ET (2008). "Measurements of secretogranins II, III, V and proconvertases 1/3 and 2 in plasma from patients with neuroendocrine tumours.". Regul. Pept. 148 (1-3): 95–8. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2008.03.007. PMID 18448176.
Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928. PMID 15489334.
Wen G, Wessel J, Zhou W, et al. (2007). "An ancestral variant of Secretogranin II confers regulation by PHOX2 transcription factors and association with hypertension.". Hum. Mol. Genet. 16 (14): 1752–64. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddm123. PMC 2695823. PMID 17584765.
Yon L, Guillemot J, Montero-Hadjadje M, et al. (2003). "Identification of the secretogranin II-derived peptide EM66 in pheochromocytomas as a potential marker for discriminating benign versus malignant tumors.". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88 (6): 2579–85. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-021748. PMID 12788858.
Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932.
Wu C, Ma MH, Brown KR, et al. (2007). "Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.". Proteomics 7 (11): 1775–85. doi:10.1002/pmic.200601006. PMID 17474147.
Li L, Hung AC, Porter AG (2008). "Secretogranin II: a key AP-1-regulated protein that mediates neuronal differentiation and protection from nitric oxide-induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells.". Cell Death Differ. 15 (5): 879–88. doi:10.1038/cdd.2008.8. PMID 18239671.
Jump up ^ Gerdes HH, Rosa P, Phillips E, Baeuerle PA, Frank R, Argos P, Huttner WB (July 1989). "The primary structure of human secretogranin II, a widespread tyrosine-sulfated secretory granule protein that exhibits low pH- and calcium-induced aggregation". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (20): 12009–15. PMID 2745426.
Jump up ^ "Entrez Gene: SCG2".
This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

Stub icon This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: Human proteinsHuman chromosome 2 gene stubs

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Privacy -- Privacy, 18:34:01 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Welcome to the Google Privacy Policy

When you use Google services, you trust us with your information. This Privacy Policy is meant to help you understand what data we collect, why we collect it, and what we do with it. This is important; we hope you will take time to read it carefully. And remember, you can find controls to manage your information and protect your privacy and security at My Account.

Privacy Policy

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There are many different ways you can use our services – to search for and share information, to communicate with other people or to create new content. When you share information with us, for example by creating a Google Account, we can make those services even better – to show you more relevant search results and ads, to help you connect with people or to make sharing with others quicker and easier. As you use our services, we want you to be clear how we’re using information and the ways in which you can protect your privacy.

Our Privacy Policy explains:

What information we collect and why we collect it.
How we use that information.
The choices we offer, including how to access and update information.
We’ve tried to keep it as simple as possible, but if you’re not familiar with terms like cookies, IP addresses, pixel tags and browsers, then read about these key terms first. Your privacy matters to Google so whether you are new to Google or a long-time user, please do take the time to get to know our practices – and if you have any questions contact us.

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We collect information in the following ways:

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Information we get from your use of our services. We collect information about the services that you use and how you use them, like when you watch a video on YouTube, visit a website that uses our advertising services, or view and interact with our ads and content. This information includes:

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We and our partners use various technologies to collect and store information when you visit a Google service, and this may include using cookies or similar technologies to identify your browser or device. We also use these technologies to collect and store information when you interact with services we offer to our partners, such as advertising services or Google features that may appear on other sites. Our Google Analytics product helps businesses and site owners analyze the traffic to their websites and apps. When used in conjunction with our advertising services, such as those using the DoubleClick cookie, Google Analytics information is linked, by the Google Analytics customer or by Google, using Google technology, with information about visits to multiple sites.

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We use the information we collect from all of our services to provide, maintain, protect and improve them, to develop new ones, and to protect Google and our users. We also use this information to offer you tailored content – like giving you more relevant search results and ads.

We may use the name you provide for your Google Profile across all of the services we offer that require a Google Account. In addition, we may replace past names associated with your Google Account so that you are represented consistently across all our services. If other users already have your email, or other information that identifies you, we may show them your publicly visible Google Profile information, such as your name and photo.

If you have a Google Account, we may display your Profile name, Profile photo, and actions you take on Google or on third-party applications connected to your Google Account (such as +1’s, reviews you write and comments you post) in our services, including displaying in ads and other commercial contexts. We will respect the choices you make to limit sharing or visibility settings in your Google Account.

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Our automated systems analyze your content (including emails) to provide you personally relevant product features, such as customized search results, tailored advertising, and spam and malware detection.

We may combine personal information from one service with information, including personal information, from other Google services – for example to make it easier to share things with people you know. We will not combine DoubleClick cookie information with personally identifiable information unless we have your opt-in consent.

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Google processes personal information on our servers in many countries around the world. We may process your personal information on a server located outside the country where you live.

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People have different privacy concerns. Our goal is to be clear about what information we collect, so that you can make meaningful choices about how it is used. For example, you can:

Review and update your Google activity controls to decide what types of data, such as videos you’ve watched on YouTube or past searches, you would like saved with your account when you use Google services.
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Our Privacy Policy applies to all of the services offered by Google Inc. and its affiliates, including YouTube, services Google provides on Android devices, and services offered on other sites (such as our advertising services), but excludes services that have separate privacy policies that do not incorporate this Privacy Policy.

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We regularly review our compliance with our Privacy Policy. We also adhere to several self regulatory frameworks. When we receive formal written complaints, we will contact the person who made the complaint to follow up. We work with the appropriate regulatory authorities, including local data protection authorities, to resolve any complaints regarding the transfer of personal data that we cannot resolve with our users directly.

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Our Privacy Policy may change from time to time. We will not reduce your rights under this Privacy Policy without your explicit consent. We will post any privacy policy changes on this page and, if the changes are significant, we will provide a more prominent notice (including, for certain services, email notification of privacy policy changes). We will also keep prior versions of this Privacy Policy in an archive for your review.

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The following notices explain specific privacy practices with respect to certain Google products and services that you may use:

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For more information about some of our most popular services, you can visit the Google Product Privacy Guide.

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Other useful privacy and security related materials

Further useful privacy and security related materials can be found through Google’s policies and principles pages, including:

Information about our technologies and principles, which includes, among other things, more information on
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Collider Detector at Fermilab -- Heden, 18:32:45 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Collider Detector at Fermilab
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses of "CDF", see CDF (disambiguation).

Wilson Hall at Fermilab

Part of the CDF detector
The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experimental collaboration studies high energy particle collisions at the Tevatron, the world's former highest-energy particle accelerator. The goal is to discover the identity and properties of the particles that make up the universe and to understand the forces and interactions between those particles.

CDF is an international collaboration of about 600 physicists (from about 30 American universities and National laboratories and about 30 groups from universities and national laboratories from Italy, Japan, UK, Canada, Germany, Spain, Russia, Finland, France, Taiwan, Korea, and Switzerland). The CDF detector itself weighs 5000 tons [1], is about 12 meters in all three dimensions. The goal of the experiment is to measure exceptional events out of the billions of collisions in order to:

Look for evidence for phenomena beyond the Standard Model of particle physics
Measure and study the production and decay of heavy particles such as the Top and Bottom Quarks, and the W and Z bosons
Measure and study the production of high-energy particle jets and photons
Study other phenomena such as diffraction
The Tevatron collides protons and antiprotons at a center-of-mass energy of about 2 TeV. The very high energy available for these collisions makes it possible to produce heavy particles such as the Top quark and the W and Z bosons, which weigh much more than a proton (or antiproton). These heavier particles are identified through their characteristic decays. The CDF apparatus records the trajectories and energies of electrons, photons and light hadrons. Neutrinos do not register in the apparatus leading to an apparent missing energy. Other hypothetical particles might leave a missing energy signature, and some searches for new phenomena are based on that.

There is another experiment similar to CDF called D0 located at another point on the Tevatron ring.

Contents [hide]
1 History of CDF
2 Discovery of the top quark
3 How CDF works
4 Layer 1: the beam pipe
5 Layer 2: silicon detector
6 Layer 3: central outer tracker (COT)
7 Layer 4: solenoid magnet
8 Layers 5 and 6: electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters
9 Layer 7: muon detectors
10 Conclusion
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links
History of CDF[edit]
There are currently two particle detectors located on the Tevatron at Fermilab: CDF and D0. CDF predates D0 as the first detector on the Tevatron. Construction of CDF began in 1982 under the leadership of John Peoples. The Tevatron was completed in 1983 and CDF began to take data in 1985.[1] Over the years, two major updates have been made to CDF. The first upgrade began in 1989 and the second upgrade began in 2001. Each upgrade is considered a "run." Run 0 was the run before any upgrades, Run I was after the first upgrade and Run II was after the second upgrade. Run II includes upgrades on the central tracking system, preshower detectors and extension on muon coverage.[2]

Discovery of the top quark[edit]
One of CDF's most famous observations is the observation of the top quark in February 1995.[3] The existence of the top quark was hypothesized after the observation of the Upsilon in 1977, which was found to consist of a bottom quark and an anti-bottom quark. The Standard Model, which today is the most widely accepted theory describing the particles and interactions, predicted the existence of three generations of quarks. The first generation quarks are the up and down quarks, second generation quarks are strange and charm, and third generation are top and bottom. The existence of the bottom quark solidified physicists’ conviction that the top quark existed.[4] The top quark was the very last quark to be observed, mostly due to its comparatively high mass. Whereas, the masses of the other quarks range from .005 GeV (up quark) to 4.7GeV (bottom quark), the top quark has a mass of 175 GeV.[5] Only Fermilab’s Tevatron had the energy capability to produce and detect top anti-top pairs. The large mass of the top quark caused the top quark to decay almost instantaneously, within the order of 10−25 seconds, making it extremely difficult to observe. The Standard Model predicts that the top quark may decay leptonically into a bottom quark and a W boson. This W boson may then decay into a lepton and neutrino (t→Wb→ѵlb). Therefore, CDF worked to reconstruct top events, looking specifically for evidence of bottom quarks, W bosons neutrinos. Finally in February 1995, CDF had enough evidence to say that they had "discovered" the top quark.[6]

How CDF works[edit]
In order for physicists to understand the data corresponding to each event, they must understand the components of the CDF detector and how the detector works. Each component affects what the data will look like. Today, the 5000-ton detector sits in B0 and analyzes millions of beam collisions per second.[7] The detector is designed in many different layers. Each of these layers work simultaneously with the other components of the detector in an effort to interact with the different particles, thereby giving physicists the opportunity to "see" and study the individual particles.

CDF can be divided into layers as follows:

Layer 1: Beam Pipe
Layer 2: Silicon Detector
Layer 3: Central Outer Tracker
Layer 4: Solenoid Magnet
Layer 5: Electromagnetic Calorimeters
Layer 6: Hadronic Calorimeters
Layer 7: Muon Detectors
Layer 1: the beam pipe[edit]
The beam pipe is the innermost layer of CDF. The beam pipe is where the protons and anti-protons, traveling at approximately 0.99996 c, collide head on. Each of the protons is moving extremely close to the speed of light with extremely high energies. Therefore, in a collision, much of the energy is converted into mass. This allows proton- anti-proton annihilation to produce daughter particles, such as top quarks with a mass of 175 GeV, much heavier than the original protons.[8]

Layer 2: silicon detector[edit]

CDF silicon vertex detector

Cross section of the silicon detector
Surrounding the beam pipe is the silicon detector. This detector is used to track the path of charged particles as they travel through the detector. The silicon detector begins at a radius of r = 1.5 cm from the beam line and extends to a radius of r = 28 cm from the beam line.[2] The silicon detector is composed of seven layers of silicon arranged in a barrel shape around the beam pipe. Silicon is often used in charged particle detectors because of its high sensitivity, allowing for high-resolution vertex and tracking.[9] The first layer of silicon, known as Layer 00, is a single sided detector designed to separate signal from background even under extreme radiation. The remaining layers are double sided and radiation-hard, meaning that the layers are protected from damage from radioactivity.[2] The silicon works to track the paths of charged particles as they pass through the detector by ionizing the silicon. The density of the silicon, coupled with the low ionization energy of silicon, allow ionization signals to travel quickly.[9] As a particle travels through the silicon, its position will be recorded in 3 dimensions. The silicon detector has a track hit resolution of 10 μm, and impact parameter resolution of 30 μm.[2] Physicists can look at this trail of ions and determine the path that the particle took.[8] As the silicon detector is located within a magnetic field, the curvature of the path through the silicon allows physicists to calculate the momentum of the particle. More curvature means less momentum and vice versa.

Layer 3: central outer tracker (COT)[edit]
Outside of the silicon detector, the central outer tracker works in much the manner as the silicon detector as it is also used to track the paths of charged particles and is also located within a magnetic field. The COT, however, is not made of silicon. Silicon is tremendously expensive and is not practical to purchase in extreme quantities. COT is a gas chamber filled with tens of thousands of gold wires arranged in layers and argon gas. Two types of wires are used in the COT: sense wires and field wires. Sense wires are thinner and attract the electrons that are released by the argon gas as it is ionized. The field wires are thicker than the sense wires and attract the positive ions formed from the release of electrons.[8] There are 96 layers of wire and each wire is placed approximately 3.86 mm apart from one another.[2] As in the silicon detector, when a charged particle passes through the chamber it ionizes the gas. This signal is then carried to a nearby wire, which is then carried to the computers for read-out. The COT is approximately 3.1 m long and extends from r = 40 cm to r = 137 cm. Although the COT is not nearly as precise as the silicon detector, the COT has a hit position resolution of 140 μm and a momentum resolution of 0.0015 (GeV/c)−1.[2]

Layer 4: solenoid magnet[edit]
The solenoid magnet surrounds both the COT and the silicon detector. The purpose of the solenoid is to bend the trajectory of charged particles in the COT and silicon detector by creating a magnetic field parallel to the beam.[2] The solenoid has a radius of r=1.5 m and is 4.8 m in length. The curvature of the trajectory of the particles in the magnet field allows physicists to calculate the momentum of each of the particles. The higher the curvature, the lower the momentum and vice versa. Because the particles have such a high energy, a very strong magnet is needed to bend the paths of the particles. The solenoid is a superconducting magnet cooled by liquid helium. The helium lowers the temperature of the magnet to 4.7 K or -268.45 °C which reduces the resistance to almost zero, allowing the magnet to conduct high currents with minimal heating and very high efficiency, and creating a powerful magnetic field.[8]

Layers 5 and 6: electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters[edit]
Calorimeters quantify the total energy of the particles by converting the energy of particles to visible light though polystyrene scintillators. CDF uses two types of calorimeters: electromagnetic calorimeters and hadronic calorimeters. The electromagnetic calorimeter measures the energy of light particles and the hadronic calorimeter measures the energy of hadrons.[8] The central electromagnetic calorimeter uses alternating sheets of lead and scintillator. Each layer of lead is approximately 20 mm (3⁄4 in) wide. The lead is used to stop the particles as they pass through the calorimeter and the scintillator is used to quantify the energy of the particles. The hadronic calorimeter works in much the same way except the hadronic calorimeter uses steel in place of lead.[2] Each calorimeter forms a wedge, which consists of both an electromagnetic calorimeter and a hadronic calorimeter. These wedges are about 2.4 m (8 ft) in length and are arranged around the solenoid.[8]

Layer 7: muon detectors[edit]
The final "layer" of the detector consists of the muon detectors. Muons are charged particles that may be produced when heavy particles decay. These high-energy particles hardly interact so the muon detectors are strategically placed at the farthest layer from the beam pipe behind large walls of steel. The steel ensures that only extremely high-energy particles, such as neutrinos and muons, pass through to the muon chambers.[8] There are two aspects of the muon detectors: the planar drift chambers and scintillators. There are four layers of planar drift chambers, each with the capability of detecting muons with a transverse momentum pT > 1.4 GeV/c.[2] These drift chambers work in the same way as the COT. They are filled with gas and wire. The charged muons ionize the gas and the signal is carried to readout by the wires.[8]

Understanding the different components of the detector is important because the detector determines what data will look like and what signal one can expect to see for each of your particles. It is important to remember that a detector is basically a set of obstacles used to force particles to interact, allowing physicists to “see” the presence of a certain particle. If a charged quark is passing through the detector, the evidence of this quark will be a curved trajectory in the silicon detector and COT deposited energy in the calorimeter. If a neutral particle, such as a neutron, passes through the detector, there will be no track in the COT and silicon detector but deposited energy in the hadronic calorimeter. Muons may appear in the COT and silicon detector and as deposited energy in the muon detectors. Likewise, a neutrino, which rarely if ever interacts, will express itself only in the form of missing energy.

Jump up ^ Jean, Reising. "History and Archives Project." About Fermilab - History and Archives Project - Main Page. 2006. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. 10 May 2009 http://history.fnal.gov/
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i "Brief Description of the CDF Detector in Run II." (2004): 1-2.
Jump up ^ Kilminster, Ben. "CDF "Results of the Week" in Fermilab Today." The Collider Detector at Fermilab. Collider Detector at Fermilab. 28 Apr. 2009 .
Jump up ^ Lankford, Andy. "Discovery of the Top Quark." Collider Detector at Fermilab. 25 Apr. 2009 .
Jump up ^ "Quark Chart." The Particle Adventure. Particle Data Group. 5 May 2009 .
Jump up ^ Quigg, Chris. "Discovery of the Top Quark." 1996. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. 8 May 2009 .
Jump up ^ Yoh, John (2005). Brief Introduction to the CDF Experiment. Retrieved April 28, 2008, Web site: http://www-cdf.fnal.gov/events/cdfintro.html
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Lee, Jenny (2008). The Collider Detector at Fermilab. Retrieved September 26, 2008, from CDF Virtual Tour Web site: http://www-cdf.fnal.gov/
^ Jump up to: a b "Particle Detectors." Particle Data Group. 24 July 2008. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. 11 May 2009 .
Further reading[edit]
Worlds within the atom, National Geographic article, May, 1985
External links[edit]
Fermilab news page
The Collider Detector At Fermilab (CDF)
Categories: Particle experimentsFermilab

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