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Welcome to the Christian Family Discipline Forum. This is a forum for Christian families who discipline with the rod of correction, or spanking.
http://www.christianfamilydiscipline.com

Arizona State Route 366 -- Heden, 20:49:24 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Arizona State Route 366
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
State Route 366 marker
State Route 366
Mount Graham Road
Route information
Maintained by ADOT
Length: 28.33 mi[1] (45.59 km)
Existed: 1960 – present
Major junctions
West end: Near Mount Graham
East end: US 191 at Swift Trail Junction
Highway system
State Routes in Arizona
Interstate U.S. State Unconstructed Former
← SR 364 SR 373 →
State Route 366 (SR 366) is a highway in Graham County, Arizona that runs from its junction with US 191 south of Safford to near the summit of Mount Graham. It is a winding mountain road with one half primarily a northwest-southeast route, the other half being northeast-southwest.

Contents [hide]
1 Route description
2 History
3 Junction list
4 References
5 External links
Route description[edit]
SR 366 is a 28.33-mile (45.59 km) highway that connects Mount Graham with US 191 at Swift Trail Junction south of Safford. The western terminus of the highway is located near a ranger station near the peak of Mount Graham. The highway heads in a southeastern route as it descends the mountain. There are several hair pin turns as the highway follows the terrain. At Turkey Flat, the highway goes through a series of five hair pin turns. The highway also begins to generally head in a northeasterly direction from this point on. The terrain eventually smooths out and the highway follows a straight path towards the northeast to its eastern terminus at US 191.

SR 366 traverses sparsely inhabited forest and mountain terrain and does not pass through any cities or towns aside from minor settlements. The highway does provide access to Mount Graham, one of the higher peaks in Arizona at over 10,000 feet (3,000 m). It also provides access to the Mount Graham International Observatory.[1][2]

History[edit]
SR 366 was established in 1960 from a junction with US 666 (now US 191) to the southwest for 6.3 miles (10.1 km).[3] Later that same year, it was extended an additional 22 miles (35 km) to the Columbine Ranger Station.[4] At this time the road was a gravel road providing access to the Coronado National Forest.[5] Since that time, the easternmost 21.7 miles (34.9 km) have been paved while the rest remains as a gravel road.[1]

Junction list[edit]
The entire route is in Graham County.

Location mi[1] km Destinations Notes
0.00 0.00 US 191
28.33 45.59 Near Mount Graham
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
References[edit]
^ Jump up to: a b c d Arizona Department of Transportation. "2008 ADOT Highway Log" (PDF). Retrieved April 8, 2008.
Jump up ^ Google (2008-04-11). "overview map of SR 366" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
Jump up ^ Arizona Department of Transportation. "ADOT Right-of-Way Resolution 1960-116". Retrieved 2008-05-07.
Jump up ^ Arizona Department of Transportation. "ADOT Right-of-Way Resolution 1961-070". Retrieved 2008-05-07.
Jump up ^ Road Map of Arizona (Map). Rand McNally. 1961. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
External links[edit]
Route map: Bing / Google

KML file (edit • help)
Display on Bing Maps
Display on Google Maps
Arizona Roads
Categories: State highways in ArizonaTransportation in Graham County, Arizona

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Neon (Chris Young album -- Heden, 20:46:27 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Neon (Chris Young album)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Neon
NeonChrisYoung.jpg
Studio album by Chris Young
Released July 12, 2011
Recorded 2010–11
Genre Country
Length 32:23
Label RCA Nashville
Producer James Stroud
Chris Young chronology
The Man I Want to Be
(2009) Neon
(2011) A.M.
(2013)
Singles from Neon
"Tomorrow"
Released: February 21, 2011[1]
"You"
Released: September 12, 2011
"Neon"
Released: March 26, 2012
"I Can Take It from There"
Released: October 15, 2012
Neon is the third studio album by American country music artist Chris Young. It was released on July 12, 2011, via RCA Records Nashville.[2] Young co-wrote seven of the album's ten tracks.[3] The album sold 72,830 copies its first week.[4]

The album includes the singles "Tomorrow", "You", "Neon", and "I Can Take It from There".

Contents [hide]
1 Critical reception
2 Track listing
3 Chart performance
3.1 Album
3.2 Singles
4 Certifications
5 Personnel
6 References
Critical reception[edit]
Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
AllMusic 4/5 stars[5]
Country Weekly 4/5 stars[6]
Slant Magazine 3/5 stars[7]
Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic praised the album for being able to deliver tracks that straddle the line between country and country pop and allows Young to perform them with convincing delivery, concluding that "If Neon does anything, it proves that Young can manage this delicate balance all the while seeming like it's no trouble at all."[5] Jonathan Keefe of Slant Magazine was mixed towards the album, saying that despite some interesting tracks and Young's vocal delivery, it consists of filler that lacks a viewpoint and could've been perform by anyone, calling it "committee-based songwriting at its worst." He concluding that "It's a shame, then, that most of the set finds Young fighting an uphill battle against some lackluster material."[7]

Track listing[edit]
No. Title Writer(s) Length
1. "I Can Take It from There" Chris Young, Rhett Akins, Ben Hayslip 2:38
2. "Lost" Young, Chris DuBois, Ashley Gorley 3:12
3. "Tomorrow" Young, Frank J. Myers, Anthony L. Smith 3:40
4. "Save Water, Drink Beer" Megan Connor, Ross Copperman, Jon Nite 2:47
5. "Neon" Shane McAnally, Josh Osborne, Trevor Rosen 3:45
6. "Old Love Feels New" Young, Brett James, Tim Nichols 4:01
7. "You" Young, Luke Laird 2:45
8. "Flashlight" Young, Robert Arthur, Johnny Bulford 3:24
9. "When She's On" Monty Criswell, Shane Minor 3:09
10. "She's Got This Thing About Her" Young, Cory Batten, Kent Blazy 3:02
[show]iTunes bonus tracks
Chart performance[edit]
Album[edit]
Chart (2011) Peak
position
US Billboard 200[8] 4
US Billboard Top Country Albums[8] 2
Singles[edit]
Year Single Peak chart positions
US Country US Country Airplay US CAN Country
[9] CAN
2011 "Tomorrow"[10] 1 — 36 — 95
"You" 1 — 34 — 66
2012 "Neon" 23 — 92 — —
"I Can Take It from There" 16 4 63 4 76
"—" denotes releases that did not chart
Certifications[edit]
Region Certification Sales/shipments
United States (RIAA)[11] Gold 500,000^
*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

Personnel[edit]
Adapted from the Neon liner notes.[12]

Musicians
Bill Watson – acoustic guitar
Mike Brignardello, Mark Hill – bass
Paul Franklin – dobro, steel guitar
Shannon Forrest – drums
Kenny Greenberg, Brent Mason – electric guitar
Aubrey Haynie – fiddle, mandolin
Steve Nathan – organ, piano
Kristin Wilkinson – string arrangements, string conductor, viola
Anthony LaMarchina, Carole Rabinowitz – cello
Jim Grosjean, Betsy Lamb – viola
Dave Angell, David Davidson, Conni Ellisor, Pamela Sixfin, Catherine Umstead, Alan Umstead, Mary K. Vanosdale – violin
Chris Young – lead vocals
Wes Hightower – background vocals
Production
Julian King – recording engineer, audio mixing (Oceanway Studios and LOUD Recording)
David Bryant, Jake Burns and Rich Hanson – assistant
Bob Ludwig – mastering
Doug Rich, Tammy Luker – production assistants
References[edit]
Jump up ^ "R&R: Going for Adds: Country". Retrieved July 28, 2011.
Jump up ^ Wyland, Sarah (May 12, 2011). "Chris Young to Release Neon on July 12". Great American Country. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
Jump up ^ Haislop, Neil (June 29, 2011). "Chris Young Gives Fans A Sneak Peek Of New Album, Neon". All Access. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
Jump up ^ Bjorke, Matt (July 20, 2011). "Blake Shelton Scores Career First This Week With "Red River Blue"". Roughstock. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
^ Jump up to: a b Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Neon - Chris Young". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
Jump up ^ Phillips, Jessica (June 13, 2011). "Neon by Chris Young". Country Weekly. American Media, Inc. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
^ Jump up to: a b Keefe, Jonathan (July 12, 2011). "Chris Young: "Neon" - Music Review". Slant Magazine. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
^ Jump up to: a b "Chart listing for Neon". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
Jump up ^ "Chris Young Album & Song Chart History – Canada Country". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Chart listing for "Tomorrow"". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
Jump up ^ "American album certifications – Chris Young – Neon". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved November 3, 2015. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
Jump up ^ Neon (liner notes). Chris Young. RCA Records. 2011.
[show] v t e
Chris Young
Categories: 2011 albumsChris Young (musician) albumsRCA Records albumsAlbums produced by James Stroud

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Marion Dix Sullivan -- Heden, 20:45:34 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Marion Dix Sullivan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Marion Dix Sullivan (born 1802, d. 1860) (fl. 1840–50) was an American songwriter and composer. She was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire, the daughter of Timothy Dix and Abigail Wilkins and the sister of General John Adams Dix of New York.[1] She married John Whiting Sullivan in 1825 and had one son, John Henry, who died of drowning in 1858.[2]

Little is known about her background,[3] but she was considered the first American woman to write a "hit" song, "The Blue Juniata," which was referenced by Mark Twain in his autobiography.[4] The song was recorded in 1937 by Roy Rogers and the early Sons of the Pioneers.

Works[edit]

Cover of "The Blue Juniata" (1844)
Marion Dix wrote ballads and sacred songs. Selected works include:

The Blue Juniata (1844)
Marion Day (1844)
Jessee Cook, the Lily of the Wood (1844)
Oh! Boatman, Row Me O'er the Stream (1846)
Cold Blew the Night Wing : The Wanderer (1846)
The Cold Has Bound the Joyous Stream (1846)
The Evening Bugle (1847)
The Field of Monterey (1848)
Mary Lindsey (1848)
The Strawberry Girl (1850)
We Cross the Prairies of Old (1854)
The Kansas Home (1854)
Juniata Ballads, compilation (1855)
Bible Songs, compilation (1856)
Bright Alfarata (1871?)[5]
Lightly On
Evening Hymn to the Savior
The Flowers that Bloom in the Spring
References[edit]
Jump up ^ McCaskey,John Piersol, Franklin Square Song Collection: Two Hundred Favorite Songs, Volume 5, retrieved 27 June 2014
Jump up ^ Burials and inscriptions in the Walnut Street Cemetery of Brookline, Brookline Historical Society, Brookline, Mass., retrieved 27 June 2014
Jump up ^ Sadie, Julie Anne; Samuel, Rhian (1994). The Norton/Grove dictionary of women composers (Digitized online by GoogleBooks). Retrieved 12 November 2010.
Jump up ^ Pendle, Karin (1991). Women & music: a history.
Jump up ^ Sullivan, Marion Dix, retrieved 27 June 2014
External links[edit]
Sons Of The Pioneers - Blue Juniata (1937) from YouTube.
Authority control
WorldCat VIAF: 68824457 LCCN: nr95047474

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Paolo Amodio -- Heden, 20:44:32 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Paolo Amodio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paolo Amodio
Personal information
Full name Paolo Amodio
Date of birth 28 May 1973 (age 42)
Place of birth Luxembourg
Playing position Striker
Senior career*
Years Team Apps† (Gls)†
1992-2001 Jeunesse Esch
2001-2002 Progrès Niedercorn
2002-2005 Jeunesse Esch
2005-2009 FC Differdange 03
National team‡
1996-1998 Luxembourg 9 (1)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.
† Appearances (goals)
‡ National team caps and goals correct as of 8 March 2012
Paolo Amodio (born 28 May 1973) is a Luxembourg players. Now retired from playing,

International career[edit]
He is a member of the Luxembourg national football team from 1996 to 1998.

External links[edit]
Paolo Amodio at National-Football-Teams.com


Flag of LuxembourgSoccer icon This biographical article relating to Luxembourgish association football is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: 1973 birthsLiving peopleLuxembourgian footballersLuxembourg international footballersJeunesse Esch playersLuxembourgian football biography stubs

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Bronwyn Calver -- Heden, 20:42:59 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Bronwyn Calver
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bronwyn Calver
Personal information
Full name Bronwyn Lianne Calver
Batting style Right-handed
Bowling style Right-arm Fast medium
International information
National side
Australia
Test debut (cap 135) 6 August 1998 v England women
Last Test 21 August 1998 v England women
ODI debut (cap 65) 17 January 1991 v New Zealand women
Last ODI 25 July 1998 v Ireland women
Domestic team information
Years Team
1982/83 - 1994/95 Australian Capital Territory women's cricket team
1996/97 - 2003/04 New South Wales women's cricket team
Career statistics
Competition WTest WODI WNCL
Matches 3 34 80
Runs scored 80 534 509
Batting average 26.66 23.12 18.85
100s/50s 0/0 0/1 0/2
Top score 28 81* 61*
Balls bowled 814 1654 4230
Wickets 5 29 95
Bowling average 47.40 22.37 22.95
5 wickets in innings 0 0 0
10 wickets in match 0 0 0
Best bowling 3/62 4/4 3/18
Catches/stumpings 2/- 8/– 24/–
Source: CricInfo, 23 May 2014
Bronwyn Lianne Calver (born 22 September 1969 in Footscray, Melbourne, Victoria)[1] is a former Australian cricketer.

She played for the Australia Capital Territory from 1982, aged 13, until 1995, playing 61 matches, and scoring 1518 runs and taking 100 wickets.[2] She then played for New South Wales from 1996 until 2004, playing 80 matches and scoring 509 runs and taking 95 wickets.[2] She is believed to be the first player to score 1,500 domestic runs and take 100 domestic wickets.[2]

Calver played her first international match in 1991 against New Zealand, and continued until the end of the 1998 Women's Ashes series. Playing three Tests and 34 One Day Internationals. She played in the winning Australian team in the 1997 Women's Cricket World Cup.

The "Bronwyn Calver medal" is awarded to the ACT Meteors player of the year.[3][4]

References[edit]
Jump up ^ Player profile: Bronwyn Calver from ESPNcricinfo
^ Jump up to: a b c Bronwyn Calver - Australia Women, 1991-1998 retrieved 5 June 2008
Jump up ^ Gaskin, Lee (3 May 2014). "Cricket ACT signals interest in women's Twenty20 Big Bash League". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 23 May 2014.
Jump up ^ Polkinghorne, David (7 May 2014). "Rene Farrell gets Cricket Australia contract". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 23 May 2014.
External links[edit]
Bronwyn Calver at southernstars.org.au
[show] v t e
Australia squad – 1993 Women's Cricket World Cup (semi-finalists)
[show] v t e
Australia squad – 1997 Women's Cricket World Cup (fourth title)


Stub icon 1 Stub icon 2 This biographical article related to Australian cricket is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: Australian women cricketersAustralia women Test cricketersAustralia women One Day International cricketersCricketers from Victoria (Australia)Sportspeople from Melbourne1969 birthsLiving peopleAustralian cricket biography stubs

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Ringstreaked guitarfish -- Heden, 20:41:58 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Ringstreaked guitarfish
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ringstreaked guitarfish
Rhinobatos hynnicephalus.jpg
Conservation status

Near Threatened (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Order: Rajiformes
Family: Rhinobatidae
Genus: Rhinobatos
Species: R. hynnicephalus
Binomial name
Rhinobatos hynnicephalus
J. Richardson, 1846
The ringstreaked guitarfish (Rhinobatos hynnicephalus) is a species of fish in the Rhinobatidae family found in China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are open seas, shallow seas, coral reefs, and estuarine waters.[1]

Ringstreaked guitarfish have paired reproductive organs, and are ovoviviparous, with a 1:1 sex ratio[2]

References[edit]
Jump up ^ Compagno, L.J.V., Ishihara, H. & Marshall, A.D. 2005. Rhinobatos hynnicephalus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 3 August 2007.
Jump up ^ Shuyuan, Qiu and Wenbin, Zheng. Reproductive biology of guitar, Rhinobatos hynnicephalus. Environmental Biology of Fishes Volume 38, Numbers 1-3, 81-93, doi:10.1007/BF00842906
Stub icon This Rajiformes article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: IUCN Red List near threatened speciesRajiformes stubsRhinobatos

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Parch, Mazandaran -- Heden, 19:54:08 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Parch, Mazandaran
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Parch
پارچ
village
Parch is located in Iran ParchParch
Coordinates: 36°32′25″N 53°45′49″ECoordinates: 36°32′25″N 53°45′49″E
Country Iran
Province Mazandaran
County Behshahr
Bakhsh Yaneh Sar
Rural District Ashrestaq
Population (2006)
• Total 196
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
• Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Parch (Persian: پارچ‎‎, also Romanized as Pārch)[1] is a village in Ashrestaq Rural District, Yaneh Sar District, Behshahr County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 196, in 45 families.[2]

References[edit]
Jump up ^ Parch can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3837694" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
Jump up ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.
[show] v t e
Iran Behshahr County
Stub icon This Behshahr County location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: Populated places in Behshahr CountyBehshahr County geography stubs

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Olga Detenyuk -- Heden, 19:52:39 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Olga Detenyuk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Olga Detenyuk
Personal information
Full name Olga Igoryevna Detenyuk
Nationality Russia
Born 23 June 1993 (age 22)
Vladivostok, Russia
Height 1.73 m (5 ft 8 in)
Sport
Sport Swimming
Strokes Breaststroke
Medal record[hide]
Women's swimming
Competitor for Russia
World Junior Championships
Gold medal – first place 2008 Monterrey 200 m breaststroke
European Junior Championships
Bronze medal – third place 2009 Prague 200 m breaststroke
Youth Olympic Games
Silver medal – second place 2010 Singapore 4×100 m medley
Olga Igoryevna Detenyuk (Russian: Ольга Игоревна Детенюк; born June 23, 1993 in Vladivostok) is a Russian swimmer, who specialized in breaststroke events.[1] Detenyuk set a games record of 2:25.19 to claim the 200 m breaststroke title at the 2008 FINA Youth World Swimming Championships in Monterrey, Mexico.[2] She also won a silver medal, as a member of the Russian team, in the girls' 4×100 m medley relay at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics in Singapore.[3]

Detenyuk qualified for the women's 200 m breaststroke, as Russia's youngest swimmer (aged 15), at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, by clearing a FINA A-standard entry time of 2:26.15 from the Russian Championships in Moscow.[4] She challenged seven other swimmers on the fourth heat, including defending Olympic champion Amanda Beard of the United States. She finished the race in seventh spot by 0.17 of a second behind Beard in 2:27.87. Detenyuk missed the semifinals by a six tenth margin (0.60), as she shared a twentieth-place tie with Great Britain's Kirsty Balfour in the preliminary heats.[5]

References[edit]
Jump up ^ "Olga Detenyuk". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
Jump up ^ "World Youth Championships: Dagny Knutson Makes It Five!". Swimming World Magazine. 13 July 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
Jump up ^ "Youth Olympics Games: Boglarka Kapas, Chad Le Clos Post World-Ranked Times in Victory". Swimming World Magazine. 16 August 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
Jump up ^ "Olympic Cut Sheet – Women's 200m Breaststroke" (PDF). Swimming World Magazine. p. 71. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
Jump up ^ "Women's 200m Breaststroke Heat 4". Beijing 2008. NBC Olympics. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
External links[edit]
NBC Olympics Profile
Stub icon 1 Stub icon 2 This biographical article related to a Russian swimmer is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: 1993 birthsLiving peopleRussian swimmersOlympic swimmers of RussiaSwimmers at the 2008 Summer OlympicsSwimmers at the 2010 Summer Youth OlympicsFemale breaststroke swimmersPeople from VladivostokRussian swimming biography stubs

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Rival Turf! -- Heden, 18:48:35 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Rival Turf!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rival Turf!
Rival Turf
North American cover art of Rival Turf!
Developer(s) Jaleco
Publisher(s) Jaleco
Designer(s) Ryoichi Kuramochi
Programmer(s) Takeshi Ohara
Hitoshi Sekiya
Manabu Shirato
Artist(s) Nobuyuki Kuramochi
Keiichi Maekawa
Tadahiko Watanabe
Masahito Takahashi
Composer(s) Yasuhiko Takashiba
Atsuyoshi Isemura
Series Rushing Beat
Platform(s) Super Famicom/SNES, Virtual Console
Release date(s) Super Famicom/SNES
JP March 27, 1992
NA April 23, 1992
EU 1993
Wii Virtual Console
JP December 7, 2010
NA May 2, 2011
PAL October 8, 2010
Wii U Virtual Console
JP September 30, 2015
NA May 28, 2015
Genre(s) Beat'em up
Mode(s) Single-player, Co-op, Versus
Rival Turf!, released in Japan as Rushing Beat (Japanese: ラッシング・ビート?), is a beat'em up video game that was released by Jaleco in 1992 for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and later on Nintendo's Virtual Console. The game is the first installment in the Rushing Beat trilogy, which also includes Brawl Brothers and The Peace Keepers, although the games were localized as unrelated titles in North America.

Contents [hide]
1 Plot
2 Gameplay
2.1 Japanese version
2.2 Characters
3 Localization
4 Reception
5 References
6 External links
Plot[edit]
Jack Flak's girlfriend Heather has been kidnapped by Big Al and his gang the Street Kings. He enlists the help of his friend, police officer Oswald "Oozie" Nelson to rescue his girlfriend and rid the city from the reign of the Street Kings once and for all. They start out by heading to the sports stadium to find out more information and locate Big Al's hideout.[1]

Gameplay[edit]

Flak is using his flying kick attack against Bullet, one of the weakest enemies in Rival Turf!.
The player controls one of two characters: Jack Flak (Rick Norton in Japan) or "Oozie" Nelson (Douglas Bild in Japan) in a one or two player mode, to defeat a plethora of enemies using punches, kicks and various weapons collected throughout the course of the game. The game also includes an "angry" mode where the character becomes temporarily invincible and more powerful after taking too much damage. Moving the character is done using the four-direction controller and each move (attack, jump, special attack) is done using three of the four available buttons near the movement keys.

The game also has a two-player versus mode. In the versus mode, the player who wins two wins out of three rounds wins the entire match.

Japanese version[edit]
One night, Rick Norton is walking down the streets of the city when he was surprised by a gun in the darkness. The mystery man behind the gun said that Norton's sister had an important video tape and was being held hostage. A new stimulant was being sold in epidemic amounts throughout the city and was only first manufactured a few years ago. Realizing that the organization's mystery was shrouded other than their sales of illegal stimulants, Norton has seen the city become slowly devastated over a period of time. He had to go to the city stadium in an attempt to rescue his sister Maria.[2]

Characters[edit]
Jack Flak/Rick Norton
The hero of the video game who is out to rescue his girlfriend Heather. The flying kick and the back drop are his specialty attacks. In the Japanese version, he is known as Rick Norton and must rescue his sister Maria from the gang.
Oswald "Oozie" Nelson/Douglas Bild
Police officer who likes to use powerful professional wrestling moves. The color of Nelson's skin was darkened somewhat from the Japanese version.
Localization[edit]
The North American version removed the introductory story the original Japanese game had. It also shortened the ending and removed the credits. When each character died in the Japanese version, their image is replaced with the Japanese word for death (死) while the North American version showed a simple "X" for fighters who are killed. Another feature unique to the Japanese version was the ability to change the number of lives and continues that the player could use.

The fictional city of "Neo Cisco" used in the Japanese version became the real-life city of Los Angeles in the North American version.

Reception[edit]
Reception
Review scores
Publication Score
AllGame 2/5 stars
IGN 4/10 stars[3]
In 2010, Damien McFerran of NintendoLife reviewed the title negatively, calling it "desperately short on originality" with "truly uninspiring gameplay". He supposed that the publisher's main strategy was to capitalize on the lack of two-player functionality in Capcom's superior competing game Final Fight, while simultaneously plagiarizing it. He described the effort as "inferior ... in practically every single way imaginable" to that "infinitely more distinguished" game. He describes the characters as "painfully similar" to and "obvious replicas" of those in Final Fight, though they "look like they've wandered off the set of a Vanilla Ice music video" and have completely unrealistic movements, collision detection, and physics. The only redeeming qualities he found to the entire game are the presence of two-player mode and the ability to run.[4]

In 2011, IGN rated Rival Turf! at 4 out of 10, calling it "an almost entirely forgettable beat-'em-up with a boring premise, bland music and partially broken gameplay". The review laments "stiff animation, a lacking storyline and characters that have no discernable personality"; and the "poor collision detection" is said to define the game as an overall failure at "the most critical component of a brawler". The review states that this game lacks even the minorly distinctive features of its numerous and similar competition, generally summarizing it as being "as vanilla as the brawler genre can be".[3]

In 2010, Nintendo Power also ridiculed the box cover art, saying that "The marketing people on this game actually had a pretty outside-the-box idea, which should have really stayed off the box. After all, who is the target audience going to find more intimidating than thugs their own age?".[5]

References[edit]
Jump up ^ Story of Rival Turf at Giant Bomb
Jump up ^ Story of Rushing Beat at Plala.or.jp
^ Jump up to: a b Thomas, Lucas M. (May 5, 2011). "Rival Turf Review". IGN. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
Jump up ^ McFerran, Damien (October 9, 2010). "Rival Turf!". NintendoLife. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
Jump up ^ "Nintendo Power". No. 3. March 2009. p. 58.
External links[edit]
Rival Turf! at MobyGames
Rushing Beat at Jaleco (Japanese)
Categories: 1992 video gamesBeat 'em upsCooperative video gamesFighting gamesSuper Nintendo Entertainment System gamesVirtual Console gamesVirtual Console games for Wii UVideo games set in CaliforniaMultiplayer and single-player video gamesSide-scrolling beat 'em ups

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Giles Crouch Kellogg -- Heden, 18:47:04 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Giles Crouch Kellogg
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Giles Crouch Kellogg (August 12, 1781 – June 19, 1861) was an American politician.

He was son of Dr. Giles C. and Mary (Catlin) Kellogg, and was born in Hadley, Massachusetts. He graduated from Yale University in 1800. He studied law with Jonathan E. Porter, Esq., was admitted to the bar in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, opened an office in his native place and here spent his life. He was honored by his townsmen with many private and public trusts. For many years he was town clerk and treasurer, and for thirteen years Register of Deeds for Hampshire County. He was often representative to the General Court of Massachusetts, and was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1853. In the War of 1812 he served as an adjutant in one of the Massachusetts regiments. For several years he taught successfully in the Hopkins Academy in Hadley. He died in Hadley, Mass., aged 80.

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the Yale Obituary Record.

Categories: 1781 births1861 deathsYale University alumniPeople from Hadley, MassachusettsMembers of the Massachusetts House of RepresentativesAmerican military personnel of the War of 1812

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India Office Records -- Heden, 18:45:49 01/21/16 Thu [1]

India Office Records
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bombay on the Malabar Coast belonging to the East India Company of England by Jan van Ryne (1754) is held by the collection.
The India Office Records are a very large collection of documents relating to the administration of India from 1600 to 1947, the period spanning Company and British rule in India. The archive is held in London by the British Library and is publicly accessible.

The records come from four main sources: the English and later British East India Company (1600–1858), the Board of Control (1784–1858), the India Office (1858–1947), and the Burma Office (1937–1948). The collection also includes records from many smaller related institutions. Overall, the collection is made up of approximately 175,000 items, including official publications and records, manuscripts, photographs, printed maps and private papers. These items take up approximately nine miles of shelving units.

Contents [hide]
1 Historical background
2 History of the Records
3 Arrangement of the Records
4 Genealogical research in the collection
5 Materials relating to Gandhi
6 See also
7 Notes and references
8 External links
Historical background[edit]
See also: Company rule in India

The British Indian Empire in 1893
The historical scope of the records begins in 1600, when the East India Company was granted exclusive rights to trade in much of Asia, including the entire Indian subcontinent. During its first 100 years, much of the East India Company's energy was involved in maintaining its trade privileges, as it faced competition from domestic and international companies.

Although the East India Company was established as a trading company, it became more and more involved in local affairs in India during the early 18th century, and eventually came to hold large swaths of land in the subcontinent. In the mid-18th century, the Company began to undertake a governmental role in large parts of India, in order to organize the nascent colony to better facilitate trade.

In an effort to increase its own involvement in the administration of India, the British Government passed Pitt's India Act in 1784, which established the Board of Control to direct the East India Company in its governing role.

In 1858, in the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British government abolished the East India Company's right to govern India, and brought the subcontinent directly under the control of the British Empire. The India Office, under the direction of the Secretary of State for India, was established to maintain administrative control over the increasingly important colony. In 1937, a separate Burma Office was established to alleviate some of the India Office's administrative burden.

History of the Records[edit]

East India House in Leadenhall Street was the London headquarters of the East India Company.
The India Office Records themselves have a very interesting history. There were different levels of care for the records over the years, but interest in preserving them was established very early. A “Keeper” of East India Company records was appointed in 1771, with a mission to arrange current records and to preserve historical records.

Toward the end of the East India Company's governance in India, an increasing number of documents were sent to London and incorporated into the records. In fact, it was one of the most documented administrations ever. However, when the control of India was transferred to the India Office, they set up a committee to review the records provided by the East India Company. On the committee's recommendation, more than 300 tons of records were sold as wastepaper. Although this was certainly a great loss to the collection, there is evidence that many of these records were duplications, or contained very little relevant information.

The first attempt to arrange and describe the records occurred in 1879, when George Birdwood published his Report on the old records of the India Office.

In 1947, the year of Indian independence, ownership of the records transferred to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the British government. In 1967, the Office decided to move the records to a new facility on Blackfriars Road, where they were merged with the India Office Library. It was during this transition that the records were transformed into a modern archival collection. A classification system for the records was determined, most of which is still being used.

In 1982, the entire collection was moved to the British Library. They are currently a part of the British Library Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections, and they are administered as Public Records, which means that they are available for public consultation in the British Library Reading Rooms.

Arrangement of the Records[edit]
The classification system for the records was created with two goals: to preserve the original order of the records as much as was possible, and to clarify the administrative history of the records. Each series of records was assigned a letter, from A to Z, and certain series also have descriptive subclasses. The classes are as follows:[1]

A: East India Company: Charters, Deeds, Statutes and Treaties c1550-c1950
B: East India Company: Minutes of the Court of Directors and Court of Proprietors 1599-1858
C: Council of India Minutes and Memoranda 1858-1947
D: East India Company: Minutes and Memoranda of General Committees 1700-1858
E: East India Company: General Correspondence 1602-1859
F: Board of Control Records 1784-1858
G: East India Company Factory Records c1595-1858
H: India Office Home Miscellaneous Series c1600-1900
I: Records relating to other Europeans in India 1475-1824
J&K: East India College, Haileybury, Records, and Records of other institutions 1749-1925
L: India Office Departmental Records
L/AG: India Office: Accountant-General's Records c1601-1974
L/E: India Office: Economic Department Records c1876-1950
L/F: India Office: Financial Department Records c1800-1948
L/I: India Office: Information Department Records 1921-1949
L/L: India Office: Legal Adviser's Records c1550-c1950
L/MAR: India Office: Marine Records c1600-1879
L/MED: India Office: Medical Board Records c1920-1960
L/MIL: India Office: Military Department Records 1708-1959
L/PARL: India Office: Parliamentary Branch Records c1772-1952
L/PO: Secretary of State for India: Private Office Papers 1858-1948
L/PWD: India Office: Public Works Department 1839-1931
L/P&J: India Office: Public and Judicial Department Records 1795-1950
L/P&S: India Office: Political and Secret Department Records 1756-c1950
L/R: India Office: Record Department Papers 1859-1959
L/SUR: India Office: Surveyor's Office Records 1837-1934
L/S&G: India Office: Services and General Department Records c1920-c1970
L/WS: India Office: War Staff Papers 1921-1951
M: Burma Office Records 1932-1948
N: Returns of Baptisms, Marriages and Burials 1698-1969
O: Biographical Series 1702-1948
P: Proceedings and Consultations 1702-1945
Q: Commission, Committee and Conference Records c1895-1947
R: Records received in London and incorporated in India Office Records
R/1: India: Crown Representative: Political Department Indian States Records 1880-1947
R/2: India: Crown Representative: Indian States Residencies Records c1789-1947
R/3: India: Viceroy's Private Office Papers and other Government Records 1899-1948
R/4: India: British High Commission Cemetery Records c1870-1967
R/5: Nepal: Kathmandu Residency Records c1792-1872
R/8: Burma: Records of the Governor's Office 1942-1947
R/9: Malaya: Malacca Orphan Chamber and Council of Justice Records c1685-1835
R/10: China: Canton Factory Records 1623-1841
R/12: Afghanistan: Kabul Legation Records 1923-1948
R/15: Gulf States: Records of the Bushire, Bahrain, Kuwait, Muscat and Trucial States Agencies 1763-1951
R/19: Egypt: Records of the Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Agencies 1832-1870
R/20: Aden: Records of the British Administrations in Aden 1837-1967
S: Linguistic Survey of India c1900-c1930
V: India Office Records Official Publications Series c1760-1957
W, X & Y: India Office Records Map Collections c1700-c1960
Z: Original Registers and Indexes to Records Series c1700-1950
Genealogical research in the collection[edit]
The collection is useful for genealogical and family history research, particularly for those who have ancestors who were Anglo-Indian or who were born or lived in British India. Recognising this, the British Library has developed resources to facilitate this process, including biographical indexes, professional research services and close links with the Families In British India Society.

The East India Company, the Board of Control and the India Office kept extensive ecclesiastical records concerning British people in India. These records, including documentation of births, baptisms, marriages, and burials are all contained in the “N” series of the collection. For those who know the occupation of their ancestor in India, the British Library provides a guide to records produced by various positions, facilitating the discovery of material that an ancestor created in the course of his work for the British administration in India. Most of these records can be found in the “L” series.

Materials relating to Gandhi[edit]

This section includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (December 2008)
The collection can be used to bolster research on almost any topic involving the history of India from 1600-1947 by providing unique information relating to the British administration's understanding of events. Perhaps one of the most interesting parts of the collection is the set of records pertaining to Mohandas Gandhi. Much is known about Gandhi's life and ideas through many sources, but these records provide interesting insight into the development of his ideas, as well as his personal life. Information on the Indian administration's feelings and frustrations concerning Gandhi is also in the records.


Gandhi
The material relating to Gandhi can be found in folders R/3/1/289-334. There are two particularly interesting sets of documents in this series. The first of these are administrative records containing reactions to Gandhi and plans concerning his activities. Most of these were originally classified as “Most Secret,” “Very Secret,” or “Top Secret.” (This detail in itself gives insight into the administration's increasing concern with secrecy, as well as their fear of Gandhi and the threat he posed to British authority.) Many of these records are proposals for responses to Gandhi's actions, including plans to prepare for riots in the event of his death during one of his fasts.

The second set of documents consists of correspondence to and from Gandhi. Gandhi wrote extensively to various British government officials, and there are 93 letters from Gandhi, as well as 48 letters to Gandhi from the administration personnel. Many of the letters currently held in the collection are copies from originals, but as the records have been so well-kept in the 20th century, their authenticity is not in question. The time period of the correspondence is 1922 to 1945.

Many of the letters from Gandhi express criticism of British policies in India and reveal Gandhi's sophisticated analysis of world politics, as well as his commitment to peace. In many, he appeals to the British to work with him to end the oppression of the Indian people.

Perhaps the most unusual of Gandhi's letters in the collection is a copy of a letter sent to Adolf Hitler, in which Gandhi expresses admiration for Hitler's passion for his nation, but urges him to seek non-violent means to address Germany's concerns. He also refers to some of Hitler's writings as “monstrous,” and makes it clear that he has no interest in seeking German aid for the end of British rule in India.

The most personal of letters from Gandhi in the collection relate to the illness and death of his wife in 1944. In these letters, one can see Gandhi's frustration at watching Kasturba Gandhi's condition worsen as he was powerless to help her. He repeatedly appealed to the British to send medical aid, including an Ayurvedic physician, and when it became clear that she would not survive, he lashed out at them, complaining that her treatment was inadequate.

Most of the letters written to Gandhi contained in the collection are accusatory, complaining that Gandhi did not live up to his rhetoric about non-violence. The letters reflect a belief that Gandhi's fasts and other dramatic forms of protest stirred up violence among the Indian population. Many of the letters also deny Gandhi's accusations that the British government was involved in systematic repression of the Indian people and failed to live up to its role as a steward of India and the Indian people.

There is also one letter in the collection from Franklin Roosevelt, who was the President of the United States at the time. In the letter, he acknowledges Gandhi's concerns about India, but suggests that World War II and the defeat of the Axis powers should take precedence. He asks Gandhi to support the British regime so that they will not be forced to divide their attention.

See also[edit]
Families In British India Society
Historiography of the British Empire
Notes and references[edit]
Jump up ^ "India Office Records: Arrangement of the Records, and List of Classes". www.bl.uk. The British Library Board. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
India Office Records. British Library, London.
Moir, Martin. A General Guide to the India Office Records. London: The British Library, 1988.
Seton, Rosemary. The Indian "Mutiny" 1857-58: A Guide to Source Material in the India Office Library and Records. London: The British Library, 1986.
Singh, Amar Kaur Jasbir. Gandhi and Civil Disobedience: Documents in the India Office Records 1922-1946. London: India Office Library and Records, 1980.
External links[edit]
India Office Records hub
India Office Family History Search - limited search of ecclesiastical and biographical records
India Office Private Papers: Scope and Catalogues
Search the India Office Records at Access 2 Archives
Coordinates: 51.5297°N 0.1269°W

Categories: Archives in LondonOfficial document archivesBritish East India CompanyBritish IndiaBritish LibraryBritish Library collections

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Charles David Cuming -- Heden, 18:43:55 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Charles David Cuming
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Charles David Cuming (April 7, 1900 – April 27, 1995[1]) was a political figure in Saskatchewan. He represented Souris-Estevan from 1944 to 1948 in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan as a Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) member.

He was born in Inchkeith, Saskatchewan and educated in Inchkeith, in Kipling and in Calgary, Alberta. Cuming was a director for the Saskatchewan section of the United Farmers of Canada and also served on the local school board. He was defeated when he ran for reelection to the provincial assembly in 1948. After leaving politics, Cuming served as sheriff for the Estevan district until he retired in 1965. He died in Regina at the age of 95.[1]

References[edit]
^ Jump up to: a b "Hansard" (PDF). Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. May 10, 1995. Retrieved 2012-05-24.


Stub icon This article about a Saskatchewan politician is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: Saskatchewan Co-operative Commonwealth Federation MLAs1900 births1995 deathsSaskatchewan school board membersSaskatchewan politician stubs

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Otto Peltzer -- Heden, 18:42:48 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Otto Peltzer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the German American politician and playwright, see Otto Peltzer (politician).
Otto Peltzer
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-05769, Otto Peltzer.jpg
Peltzer in 1928
Personal information
Born 8 March 1900
Drage, Steinburg, Germany
Died 11 August 1970 (aged 70)
Sport
Sport Athletics
Event(s) 200–1500 m, hurdles
Achievements and titles
Personal best(s) 200 m – 22.1 (1925)
400 m – 48.8 (1925)
800 m – 1:50.9 (1926)
1500 m – 3:51.0 (1926)
400 mH – 54.8 (1927)[1][2]
Otto Paul Eberhard Peltzer (8 March 1900 – 11 August 1970) was a German middle distance runner who set world records in the 1920s. Over the 800 m Peltzer improved Ted Meredith's long-standing record by 0.3 seconds to 1:51.6 min in London in July 1926. Over the 1000 m he set a world record of 2:25.8 in Paris in July 1927, and over 1500 m Peltzer broke Paavo Nurmi's world record (3:52.6) and set a new one at 3:51.0 in Berlin in September 1926. Peltzer was the only athlete to have held the 800 m and the 1500 m world records simultaneously, until Sebastian Coe matched the feat over fifty years later.[3]

Biography[edit]
Born in Ellernbrook-Drage in Holstein, Peltzer overcame childhood ill-health to become a successful athlete, winning his first German championship at age twenty-two. He started university in Munich in 1918, joining the TSV 1860 club, where he was nicknamed "Otto der Seltsame" (Otto the Strange). He continued in Munich, receiving his doctorate in 1925. In 1926 he was one of a group of German athletes invited to the AAA Championships at Stamford Bridge stadium in London, where he won the 800 m, beating Britain's Douglas Lowe, who had won the event at the 1924 Olympic Games which, along with the 1920 Games, Germany had been barred from entering. In 1926, a specially arranged 1500 m race between Peltzer, Paavo Nurmi of Finland, Edvin Wide of Sweden and Herbert Bocher of Germany took place in Berlin which was won by Peltzer in a new world record time.[4]

Shortly before the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam, to which German athletes were again allowed to enter with Peltzer elected as team leader, Peltzer was injured in an accident while playing handball. Although he recovered enough to take part in the 800 m heats, he failed to qualify for the final.[5] In 1932 he was team captain, but poor arrangements left the German team trying to run with spiked shoes on the hard Olympic track. Peltzer made the final, but did not finish.[4][5]

Peltzer was often persecuted for his homosexuality.[6] In 1933 he joined the Nazi Party and the SS. However, in June 1935 he was sentenced to 18 months imprisonment for 'homosexual offences with youths'.[7] He was released early on condition that he would end his involvement in sport, but was rearrested in 1937. After spending time in Denmark, Finland (where he slept rough and contracted bronchitis) and Sweden, he returned to Germany in 1941 having been assured that the charges against him would be dropped. However, he was arrested and sent to KZ Mauthausen, where he remained until the camp was liberated on 5 May 1945.[1][4][8]

With homosexuality remaining a criminal offence in 1950s Germany, and Peltzer in conflict with the German Athletic Association (DLV) and Carl Diem,[9] Peltzer's opportunities to coach athletics were limited in Germany. He obtained a commission from a German newspaper to report on the Melbourne Olympics, and after the Games tried unsuccessfully to get work with various national athletics organisations. He eventually came to India, coaching in the national athletics stadium in New Delhi, and founded the Olympic Youth Delhi club, later renamed the Otto Peltzer Memorial Athletic Club in his honour.[1][4]

Following a heart attack in 1967, Peltzer was persuaded to return to Germany, and was treated in hospital in Holstein. After attending an athletics meeting in Eutin, Schleswig-Holstein, Peltzer collapsed and was found dead on a path towards the car park.[1][10]

In 2000 the DLV established the Otto Peltzer Medal given to outstanding athletes.[1]

References[edit]
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Otto Peltzer. sports-reference.com
Jump up ^ Otto Peltzer. trackfield.brinkster.net
Jump up ^ Raevuori, Antero (1997). Paavo Nurmi, juoksijoiden kuningas (in Finnish) (2nd ed.). WSOY. p. 247. ISBN 978-9510218501.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Otto the Strange – the Champion who defied the Nazis, The Observer Sport Monthly, July 2008 No 101
^ Jump up to: a b The Historic Series on Olympic Running (III): Men’s 800m. Scc-events.com (25 August 2015). Retrieved on 2015-09-11.
Jump up ^ Riordan, James; Arnd Krüger (1999). International Politics of Sport in the Twentieth Century. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-419-21160-8.
Jump up ^ Herzer, Manfred: Dr. Otto Peltzer – "Ein Pädophiler überlebt den Nazi-Terror," in: Capri. Zeitschrift für schwule Geschichte, Nr. 27 (December 1999), pp. 32–47
Jump up ^ Running Cultures: Racing in Time and Space, author John Bale 2003 ISBN 0-7146-5535-X pp. 111–112
Jump up ^ [1] Sportswissenschaft No 3 2004
Jump up ^ The true friends of India. The Hindu, 7 March 2005
External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Otto Peltzer.
Photos of Dr O. Peltzer running in New Zealand, 1930
Records
Preceded by
United States Ted Meredith Men's 800 metres World Record Holder
3 July 1926 – 14 July 1928 Succeeded by
France Séra Martin
Preceded by
Finland Paavo Nurmi Men's 1500 metres World Record Holder
11 September 1926 – 4 October 1930 Succeeded by
France Jules Ladoumegue
Preceded by
— European Record Holder Men's 800m
3 July 1926 – 13 July 1928 Succeeded by
France Séra Martin
Preceded by
Finland Paavo Nurmi European Record Holder Men's 1500m
11 September 1926 – 4 October 1930 Succeeded by
France Jules Ladoumegue
Authority control
WorldCat VIAF: 32739319 LCCN: n2001095852 ISNI: 0000 0000 4617 7742 GND: 116076496
Categories: 1900 births1970 deathsPeople from SteinburgPeople from the Province of Schleswig-HolsteinLGBT sportspeople from GermanyGay sportsmenLGBT track and field athletesGerman middle-distance runnersNazi Party membersSS personnelPeople convicted under Germany's Paragraph 175University of California, Berkeley alumniFormer world record holders in athletics (track and field)Olympic athletes of GermanyAthletes (track and field) at the 1928 Summer OlympicsAthletes (track and field) at the 1932 Summer OlympicsMauthausen-Gusen concentration camp survivorsAthletics in India

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Neil R. McMillen -- Heden, 18:41:42 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Neil R. McMillen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Neil R. McMillen is an American historian, and professor emeritus at University of Southern Mississippi.[1]

Contents [hide]
1 Life
2 Awards
3 Works
4 References
5 External links
Life[edit]
He graduated from the University of Southern Mississippi with a BA and MA, and from Vanderbilt University with a Ph.D. His papers are held at University of Southern Mississippi.[2]

He lives in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, in the winter and on Lake Superior in Upper Michigan in the summer.

Awards[edit]
1990 Bancroft Prize
1990 Gustavus Myers Prize
1990 McLemore Prize
1990 Pulitzer Prize finalist
Works[edit]
"The American Reaction to the Rise of Nazi Germany, March, 1933 - March, 1934" (USM thesis, 1963)
Thomas Jefferson: Philosopher of Freedom. Chicago: Rand McNally. 1973. ISBN 978-0-528-82487-6.
Charles Grier Sellers, Henry Farnham May, Neil R. McMillen (1974). A synopsis of American history. Chicago: Rand McNally College Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-929587-74-5. (7th Edition 1992)
Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 1989. ISBN 978-0-252-06156-1.
The Citizens' Council: Organized Resistance to the Second Reconstruction, 1954-64. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 1994. ISBN 978-0-252-06441-8. (1st edition 1971)
Neil R. McMillen, ed. (1997). Remaking Dixie: The Impact of World War II on the American South. Jackson, Miss.: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-0-87805-928-7.
Geoffrey Jensen, Andrew Wiest, eds. (2001). "World War II and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement". War in the age of technology: myriad faces of modern armed conflict. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-4251-8.
References[edit]
Jump up ^ http://www.usm.edu/history/mcmillen.php
Jump up ^ http://www.lib.usm.edu/~archives/mcmillen.htm
External links[edit]
Authority control
VIAF: 32123051 ISNI: 0000 0000 2095 1074 SUDOC: 029924707 BNF: cb12741349w (data)

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L-threonine dehydrogenase -- Heden, 18:39:56 01/21/16 Thu [1]

L-threonine dehydrogenase
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
L-Threonine dehydrogenase
Identifiers
EC number 1.1.1.103
CAS number 9067-99-6
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO
[show]Search
L-Threonine dehydrogenase
Identifiers
Symbol TDH
Entrez 157739
HUGO 15547
RefSeq NM_152566
UniProt Q8IZJ6
Other data
EC number 1.1.1.103
Locus Chr. 8 p23.1
L-Threonine dehydrogenase is an enzyme that facilitates the catabolism of threonine. It catalyses its conversion to glycine via 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate with concomitant reduction of NAD+.

References[edit]
Epperly BR, Dekker EE (April 1991). "L-threonine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Identification of an active site cysteine residue and metal ion studies". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (10): 6086–92. PMID 2007567.
Edgar AJ (October 2002). "The human L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase gene is an expressed pseudogene". BMC Genet. 3: 18. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-3-18. PMC 131051. PMID 12361482.
Stub icon This biochemistry article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
[show] v t e
Metabolism: Protein metabolism, synthesis and catabolism enzymes
[show] v t e
Oxidoreductases: alcohol oxidoreductases (EC 1.1)
Categories: Genes on human chromosome 8Biochemistry stubs

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Nesh, Afghanistan -- Heden, 18:38:51 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Nesh, Afghanistan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2011)
Nesh
Nesh is located in Afghanistan NeshNesh
Location in Afghanistan
Coordinates: 32°25′39″N 65°38′27″ECoordinates: 32°25′39″N 65°38′27″E
Country Afghanistan
Province Kandahar Province
District Nesh District
Elevation 4,941 ft (1,506 m)
Time zone UTC+4:30
Nesh (also: Nïsh, Naish) is a village and the center of Nesh District, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. It is located on 32.4275°N 65.6408°E at 1,506 m altitude.



Stub icon This Kandahar Province, Afghanistan location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: Populated places in Kandahar ProvinceAfghanistan geography stubs

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Manila Metro Rail Transit Line 7 -- Heden, 18:37:46 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Manila Metro Rail Transit Line 7
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
MRT Line 7
Overview
Type Rapid transit
System Manila Universal LRT System
Status Approved
Locale Metro Manila and Bulacan
Termini North Avenue
Araneta
Stations 14
Services 1
Daily ridership 448,000 (est.)
Operation
Opened TBA
Owner Universal LRT Corporation
Operator(s)
Universal LRT Corporation

Department of Transportation and Communications
Technical
Line length 22.8 km
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge
Electrification Third rail
[hide]Route map
Legend

Araneta

Tala

Sacred Heart

Quirino

Mindanao Avenue

Regalado Avenue

Doña Carmen

Manggahan

Batasan

Don Antonio

Tandang Sora

University Avenue


Quezon Memorial

North Avenue LRT1
This diagram: view talk edit
The Manila Metro Rail Transit Line 7 (MRT-7) is a proposed rapid transit line in Metro Manila in the Philippines. If completed, the line would be 22.8 km long with 14 stations. The line has been projected running in a northeast direction, traversing Quezon City and a part of North Caloocan in Metro Manila before ending in the city of San Jose del Monte in Bulacan province.

The MRT-7 project will cost an estimated US$ 1.54 billion or PHP 62.7 billion.[1] Under the proposal, it will have a combined 44-km of road and rail transportation project from the Bocaue exit of the North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) to the intersection of North Avenue and Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). The 22-km, 6-lane asphalt road will connect the NLEX to the major transportation hub development in San Jose del Monte.

History[edit]
Universal LRT Corporation, which was composed of a consortium of the Tranzen Group, EEI Corporation and SM Prime Holdings and led by former Finance Secretary Roberto de Ocampo submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Philippine Department of Transportation in 2002. In June 2007, DOTC presented a Swiss Challenge in which four business firms submitted their counter proposal. In January 2008, DOTC announced that the ULC proposal emerged as winner and the contract was signed. San Miguel Corporation acquired a majority stake in Universal LRT Corporation (ULC) in October 2010.[2]

In May 2009, The Investment Coordination Committee (ICC) of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) approved the MRT-7 project. Construction of MRT-7 should have commenced in January 2010, but has been postponed several times since then.[3]

In April 2015, San Miguel Corporation announced that it will begin construction of the MRT 7 by the middle of 2016.[4] It is expected to be completed by 2018.[1]

The proposed stations (listed south to north) are:

Station City
North Avenue Quezon City
Quezon Memorial
University Avenue
Tandang Sora
Don Antonio
Batasan
Manggahan
Doña Carmen
Regalado Highway
Mindanao Avenue
Quirino
Sacred Heart
Tala Caloocan
Araneta San Jose del Monte, Bulacan
See also[edit]
Metro Manila Rapid Transit
LRT Line 1
LRT Line 2
MRT Line 3
LRT Line 4
LRT Line 6
PNR Metro South Commuter Line
List of rail transit stations in the Greater Manila Area
Manila Light Rail Transit System
Metro Rail Transit Corporation
Philippine National Railways
Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC)
Transportation in the Philippines
References[edit]
^ Jump up to: a b "SMC vows to finish MRT 7 project by 2018". Public-Private Partnership Center. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
Jump up ^ "Infrastructure". San Miguel Corporation. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
Jump up ^ "Construction of MRT-7 seen to start in 2014". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 29, 2013.
Jump up ^ Lee, Cassandra (20 April 2015). "San Miguel to start building MRT7 by mid-2016". Interaksyon. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
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Categories: Rapid transit in the PhilippinesProposed public transportation in the PhilippinesRail transport in Metro ManilaTransportation in Bulacan

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William F. Waldow -- Heden, 18:36:09 01/21/16 Thu [1]

William F. Waldow
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2014)

William F. Waldow, Congressman from New York
William Frederick Waldow (August 26, 1882 – April 16, 1930) was a United States Representative from New York. Born in Buffalo, he attended the common schools, apprenticed as a plumber, and later engaged as a plumbing contractor. He was elected a member of the board of aldermen of Buffalo in 1912 and 1913 and was a member of the New York Republican State committee in 1916.

Waldow was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-fifth Congress, holding office from March 4, 1917 to March 3, 1919. He was unsuccessful for reelection in 1918 to the Sixty-sixth Congress and resumed former business pursuits. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1920 and was sheriff of Erie County from 1921 to 1923. He died in Snyder (a suburb of Buffalo) in 1930; interment was in Forest Lawn Cemetery.

References[edit]
William F. Waldow at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
William F. Waldow at Find a Grave
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Daniel A. Driscoll Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 42nd congressional district
1917–1918 Succeeded by
James M. Mead


Stub icon This article about a member of the United States House of Representatives from New York State is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: 1882 births1930 deathsAmerican plumbersMembers of the United States House of Representatives from New YorkNew York RepublicansPeople from Buffalo, New YorkRepublican Party members of the United States House of RepresentativesNew York United States Representative stubs

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SCG2 -- Heden, 18:34:48 01/21/16 Thu [1]

SCG2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Secretogranin II
Identifiers
Symbols SCG2 ; CHGC; EM66; SN; SgII
External IDs OMIM: 118930 MGI: 103033 HomoloGene: 2591 GeneCards: SCG2 Gene
[show]Gene ontology
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7857 20254
Ensembl ENSG00000171951 ENSMUSG00000050711
UniProt P13521 Q03517
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003469 NM_009129
RefSeq (protein) NP_003460 NP_033155
Location (UCSC) Chr 2:
223.6 – 223.6 Mb Chr 1:
79.43 – 79.44 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
v t e
SCG2, also called secretogranin II (chromogranin C), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SCG2 gene.[1]

Contents [hide]
1 Function
2 See also
3 Further reading
4 References
Function[edit]
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. Studies in rodents suggest that the full-length protein, secretogranin II, is involved in the packaging or sorting of peptide hormones and neuropeptides into secretory vesicles. The full-length protein is cleaved to produce the active peptide secretoneurin, which exerts chemotaxic effects on specific cell types, and EM66, whose function is unknown.[2]

See also[edit]
Chromogranin
Further reading[edit]
Kirchmair R, Gander R, Egger M, et al. (2004). "The neuropeptide secretoneurin acts as a direct angiogenic cytokine in vitro and in vivo.". Circulation 109 (6): 777–83. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000112574.07422.C1. PMID 14970115.
Ozawa H, Takata K (1995). "The granin family--its role in sorting and secretory granule formation.". Cell Struct. Funct. 20 (6): 415–20. doi:10.1247/csf.20.415. PMID 8825061.
Huttner WB, Gerdes HH, Rosa P (1991). "The granin (chromogranin/secretogranin) family.". Trends Biochem. Sci. 16 (1): 27–30. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(91)90012-K. PMID 2053134.
Stemberger K, Pallhuber J, Doblinger A, et al. (2004). "Secretoneurin in the human aqueous humor and the absence of an effect of frequently used eye drops on the levels.". Peptides 25 (12): 2115–8. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2004.08.010. PMID 15572199.
Scammell JG, Reddy S, Valentine DL, et al. (2000). "Isolation and characterization of the human secretogranin II gene promoter.". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 75 (1): 8–15. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(99)00269-7. PMID 10648883.
Kähler CM, Schratzberger P, Kaufmann G, et al. (2002). "Transendothelial migration of leukocytes and signalling mechanisms in response to the neuropeptide secretoneurin.". Regul. Pept. 105 (1): 35–46. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(01)00379-2. PMID 11853870.
Beranova-Giorgianni S, Zhao Y, Desiderio DM, Giorgianni F (2006). "Phosphoproteomic analysis of the human pituitary.". Pituitary 9 (2): 109–20. doi:10.1007/s11102-006-8916-x. PMID 16807684.
Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, et al. (2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.". Cell 125 (4): 801–14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569.
Kato A, Kammen-Jolly K, Fischer-Colbie R, et al. (2000). "Co-distribution patterns of chromogranin B-like immunoreactivity with chromogranin A and secretoneurin within the human brainstem.". Brain Res. 852 (2): 444–52. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(99)02229-5. PMID 10678772.
Schrott-Fischer A, Bitsche M, Humpel C, et al. (2009). "Chromogranin peptides in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.". Regul. Pept. 152 (1-3): 13–21. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2008.07.009. PMID 18721831.
Fischer-Colbrie R, Kirchmair R, Kähler CM, et al. (2005). "Secretoneurin: a new player in angiogenesis and chemotaxis linking nerves, blood vessels and the immune system.". Curr. Protein Pept. Sci. 6 (4): 373–85. doi:10.2174/1389203054546334. PMID 16101435.
Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, et al. (2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4.". Nature 434 (7034): 724–31. doi:10.1038/nature03466. PMID 15815621.
Lankat-Buttgereit B, Müller S, Schmidt H, et al. (2008). "Knockdown of Pdcd4 results in induction of proprotein convertase 1/3 and potent secretion of chromogranin A and secretogranin II in a neuroendocrine cell line.". Biol. Cell 100 (12): 703–15. doi:10.1042/BC20080052. PMID 18549351.
Stridsberg M, Eriksson B, Janson ET (2008). "Measurements of secretogranins II, III, V and proconvertases 1/3 and 2 in plasma from patients with neuroendocrine tumours.". Regul. Pept. 148 (1-3): 95–8. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2008.03.007. PMID 18448176.
Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928. PMID 15489334.
Wen G, Wessel J, Zhou W, et al. (2007). "An ancestral variant of Secretogranin II confers regulation by PHOX2 transcription factors and association with hypertension.". Hum. Mol. Genet. 16 (14): 1752–64. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddm123. PMC 2695823. PMID 17584765.
Yon L, Guillemot J, Montero-Hadjadje M, et al. (2003). "Identification of the secretogranin II-derived peptide EM66 in pheochromocytomas as a potential marker for discriminating benign versus malignant tumors.". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88 (6): 2579–85. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-021748. PMID 12788858.
Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932.
Wu C, Ma MH, Brown KR, et al. (2007). "Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.". Proteomics 7 (11): 1775–85. doi:10.1002/pmic.200601006. PMID 17474147.
Li L, Hung AC, Porter AG (2008). "Secretogranin II: a key AP-1-regulated protein that mediates neuronal differentiation and protection from nitric oxide-induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells.". Cell Death Differ. 15 (5): 879–88. doi:10.1038/cdd.2008.8. PMID 18239671.
References[edit]
Jump up ^ Gerdes HH, Rosa P, Phillips E, Baeuerle PA, Frank R, Argos P, Huttner WB (July 1989). "The primary structure of human secretogranin II, a widespread tyrosine-sulfated secretory granule protein that exhibits low pH- and calcium-induced aggregation". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (20): 12009–15. PMID 2745426.
Jump up ^ "Entrez Gene: SCG2".
This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



Stub icon This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: Human proteinsHuman chromosome 2 gene stubs

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Privacy -- Privacy, 18:34:01 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Welcome to the Google Privacy Policy

When you use Google services, you trust us with your information. This Privacy Policy is meant to help you understand what data we collect, why we collect it, and what we do with it. This is important; we hope you will take time to read it carefully. And remember, you can find controls to manage your information and protect your privacy and security at My Account.

Privacy Policy

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There are many different ways you can use our services – to search for and share information, to communicate with other people or to create new content. When you share information with us, for example by creating a Google Account, we can make those services even better – to show you more relevant search results and ads, to help you connect with people or to make sharing with others quicker and easier. As you use our services, we want you to be clear how we’re using information and the ways in which you can protect your privacy.

Our Privacy Policy explains:

What information we collect and why we collect it.
How we use that information.
The choices we offer, including how to access and update information.
We’ve tried to keep it as simple as possible, but if you’re not familiar with terms like cookies, IP addresses, pixel tags and browsers, then read about these key terms first. Your privacy matters to Google so whether you are new to Google or a long-time user, please do take the time to get to know our practices – and if you have any questions contact us.

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We collect information to provide better services to all of our users – from figuring out basic stuff like which language you speak, to more complex things like which ads you’ll find most useful, the people who matter most to you online, or which YouTube videos you might like.

We collect information in the following ways:

Information you give us. For example, many of our services require you to sign up for a Google Account. When you do, we’ll ask for personal information, like your name, email address, telephone number or credit card to store with your account. If you want to take full advantage of the sharing features we offer, we might also ask you to create a publicly visible Google Profile, which may include your name and photo.

Information we get from your use of our services. We collect information about the services that you use and how you use them, like when you watch a video on YouTube, visit a website that uses our advertising services, or view and interact with our ads and content. This information includes:

Device information

We collect device-specific information (such as your hardware model, operating system version, unique device identifiers, and mobile network information including phone number). Google may associate your device identifiers or phone number with your Google Account.

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When you use Google services, we may collect and process information about your actual location. We use various technologies to determine location, including IP address, GPS, and other sensors that may, for example, provide Google with information on nearby devices, Wi-Fi access points and cell towers.

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Cookies and similar technologies

We and our partners use various technologies to collect and store information when you visit a Google service, and this may include using cookies or similar technologies to identify your browser or device. We also use these technologies to collect and store information when you interact with services we offer to our partners, such as advertising services or Google features that may appear on other sites. Our Google Analytics product helps businesses and site owners analyze the traffic to their websites and apps. When used in conjunction with our advertising services, such as those using the DoubleClick cookie, Google Analytics information is linked, by the Google Analytics customer or by Google, using Google technology, with information about visits to multiple sites.

Information we collect when you are signed in to Google, in addition to information we obtain about you from partners, may be associated with your Google Account. When information is associated with your Google Account, we treat it as personal information. For more information about how you can access, manage or delete information that is associated with your Google Account, visit the Transparency and choice section of this policy.

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We use the information we collect from all of our services to provide, maintain, protect and improve them, to develop new ones, and to protect Google and our users. We also use this information to offer you tailored content – like giving you more relevant search results and ads.

We may use the name you provide for your Google Profile across all of the services we offer that require a Google Account. In addition, we may replace past names associated with your Google Account so that you are represented consistently across all our services. If other users already have your email, or other information that identifies you, we may show them your publicly visible Google Profile information, such as your name and photo.

If you have a Google Account, we may display your Profile name, Profile photo, and actions you take on Google or on third-party applications connected to your Google Account (such as +1’s, reviews you write and comments you post) in our services, including displaying in ads and other commercial contexts. We will respect the choices you make to limit sharing or visibility settings in your Google Account.

When you contact Google, we keep a record of your communication to help solve any issues you might be facing. We may use your email address to inform you about our services, such as letting you know about upcoming changes or improvements.

We use information collected from cookies and other technologies, like pixel tags, to improve your user experience and the overall quality of our services. One of the products we use to do this on our own services is Google Analytics. For example, by saving your language preferences, we’ll be able to have our services appear in the language you prefer. When showing you tailored ads, we will not associate an identifier from cookies or similar technologies with sensitive categories, such as those based on race, religion, sexual orientation or health.

Our automated systems analyze your content (including emails) to provide you personally relevant product features, such as customized search results, tailored advertising, and spam and malware detection.

We may combine personal information from one service with information, including personal information, from other Google services – for example to make it easier to share things with people you know. We will not combine DoubleClick cookie information with personally identifiable information unless we have your opt-in consent.

We will ask for your consent before using information for a purpose other than those that are set out in this Privacy Policy.

Google processes personal information on our servers in many countries around the world. We may process your personal information on a server located outside the country where you live.

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Transparency and choice

People have different privacy concerns. Our goal is to be clear about what information we collect, so that you can make meaningful choices about how it is used. For example, you can:

Review and update your Google activity controls to decide what types of data, such as videos you’ve watched on YouTube or past searches, you would like saved with your account when you use Google services.
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Whenever you use our services, we aim to provide you with access to your personal information. If that information is wrong, we strive to give you ways to update it quickly or to delete it – unless we have to keep that information for legitimate business or legal purposes. When updating your personal information, we may ask you to verify your identity before we can act on your request.

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We will share personal information with companies, organizations or individuals outside of Google when we have your consent to do so. We require opt-in consent for the sharing of any sensitive personal information.

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If your Google Account is managed for you by a domain administrator (for example, for Google Apps users) then your domain administrator and resellers who provide user support to your organization will have access to your Google Account information (including your email and other data). Your domain administrator may be able to:

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We will share personal information with companies, organizations or individuals outside of Google if we have a good-faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of the information is reasonably necessary to:

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We may share non-personally identifiable information publicly and with our partners – like publishers, advertisers or connected sites. For example, we may share information publicly to show trends about the general use of our services.

If Google is involved in a merger, acquisition or asset sale, we will continue to ensure the confidentiality of any personal information and give affected users notice before personal information is transferred or becomes subject to a different privacy policy.

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We work hard to protect Google and our users from unauthorized access to or unauthorized alteration, disclosure or destruction of information we hold. In particular:

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We review our information collection, storage and processing practices, including physical security measures, to guard against unauthorized access to systems.
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Our Privacy Policy applies to all of the services offered by Google Inc. and its affiliates, including YouTube, services Google provides on Android devices, and services offered on other sites (such as our advertising services), but excludes services that have separate privacy policies that do not incorporate this Privacy Policy.

Our Privacy Policy does not apply to services offered by other companies or individuals, including products or sites that may be displayed to you in search results, sites that may include Google services, or other sites linked from our services. Our Privacy Policy does not cover the information practices of other companies and organizations who advertise our services, and who may use cookies, pixel tags and other technologies to serve and offer relevant ads.

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We regularly review our compliance with our Privacy Policy. We also adhere to several self regulatory frameworks. When we receive formal written complaints, we will contact the person who made the complaint to follow up. We work with the appropriate regulatory authorities, including local data protection authorities, to resolve any complaints regarding the transfer of personal data that we cannot resolve with our users directly.

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Our Privacy Policy may change from time to time. We will not reduce your rights under this Privacy Policy without your explicit consent. We will post any privacy policy changes on this page and, if the changes are significant, we will provide a more prominent notice (including, for certain services, email notification of privacy policy changes). We will also keep prior versions of this Privacy Policy in an archive for your review.

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For more information about some of our most popular services, you can visit the Google Product Privacy Guide.

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Further useful privacy and security related materials can be found through Google’s policies and principles pages, including:

Information about our technologies and principles, which includes, among other things, more information on
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technologies we use for advertising.
how we recognize patterns like faces.
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Collider Detector at Fermilab -- Heden, 18:32:45 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Collider Detector at Fermilab
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses of "CDF", see CDF (disambiguation).

Wilson Hall at Fermilab

Part of the CDF detector
The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experimental collaboration studies high energy particle collisions at the Tevatron, the world's former highest-energy particle accelerator. The goal is to discover the identity and properties of the particles that make up the universe and to understand the forces and interactions between those particles.

CDF is an international collaboration of about 600 physicists (from about 30 American universities and National laboratories and about 30 groups from universities and national laboratories from Italy, Japan, UK, Canada, Germany, Spain, Russia, Finland, France, Taiwan, Korea, and Switzerland). The CDF detector itself weighs 5000 tons [1], is about 12 meters in all three dimensions. The goal of the experiment is to measure exceptional events out of the billions of collisions in order to:

Look for evidence for phenomena beyond the Standard Model of particle physics
Measure and study the production and decay of heavy particles such as the Top and Bottom Quarks, and the W and Z bosons
Measure and study the production of high-energy particle jets and photons
Study other phenomena such as diffraction
The Tevatron collides protons and antiprotons at a center-of-mass energy of about 2 TeV. The very high energy available for these collisions makes it possible to produce heavy particles such as the Top quark and the W and Z bosons, which weigh much more than a proton (or antiproton). These heavier particles are identified through their characteristic decays. The CDF apparatus records the trajectories and energies of electrons, photons and light hadrons. Neutrinos do not register in the apparatus leading to an apparent missing energy. Other hypothetical particles might leave a missing energy signature, and some searches for new phenomena are based on that.

There is another experiment similar to CDF called D0 located at another point on the Tevatron ring.

Contents [hide]
1 History of CDF
2 Discovery of the top quark
3 How CDF works
4 Layer 1: the beam pipe
5 Layer 2: silicon detector
6 Layer 3: central outer tracker (COT)
7 Layer 4: solenoid magnet
8 Layers 5 and 6: electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters
9 Layer 7: muon detectors
10 Conclusion
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links
History of CDF[edit]
There are currently two particle detectors located on the Tevatron at Fermilab: CDF and D0. CDF predates D0 as the first detector on the Tevatron. Construction of CDF began in 1982 under the leadership of John Peoples. The Tevatron was completed in 1983 and CDF began to take data in 1985.[1] Over the years, two major updates have been made to CDF. The first upgrade began in 1989 and the second upgrade began in 2001. Each upgrade is considered a "run." Run 0 was the run before any upgrades, Run I was after the first upgrade and Run II was after the second upgrade. Run II includes upgrades on the central tracking system, preshower detectors and extension on muon coverage.[2]

Discovery of the top quark[edit]
One of CDF's most famous observations is the observation of the top quark in February 1995.[3] The existence of the top quark was hypothesized after the observation of the Upsilon in 1977, which was found to consist of a bottom quark and an anti-bottom quark. The Standard Model, which today is the most widely accepted theory describing the particles and interactions, predicted the existence of three generations of quarks. The first generation quarks are the up and down quarks, second generation quarks are strange and charm, and third generation are top and bottom. The existence of the bottom quark solidified physicists’ conviction that the top quark existed.[4] The top quark was the very last quark to be observed, mostly due to its comparatively high mass. Whereas, the masses of the other quarks range from .005 GeV (up quark) to 4.7GeV (bottom quark), the top quark has a mass of 175 GeV.[5] Only Fermilab’s Tevatron had the energy capability to produce and detect top anti-top pairs. The large mass of the top quark caused the top quark to decay almost instantaneously, within the order of 10−25 seconds, making it extremely difficult to observe. The Standard Model predicts that the top quark may decay leptonically into a bottom quark and a W boson. This W boson may then decay into a lepton and neutrino (t→Wb→ѵlb). Therefore, CDF worked to reconstruct top events, looking specifically for evidence of bottom quarks, W bosons neutrinos. Finally in February 1995, CDF had enough evidence to say that they had "discovered" the top quark.[6]

How CDF works[edit]
In order for physicists to understand the data corresponding to each event, they must understand the components of the CDF detector and how the detector works. Each component affects what the data will look like. Today, the 5000-ton detector sits in B0 and analyzes millions of beam collisions per second.[7] The detector is designed in many different layers. Each of these layers work simultaneously with the other components of the detector in an effort to interact with the different particles, thereby giving physicists the opportunity to "see" and study the individual particles.

CDF can be divided into layers as follows:

Layer 1: Beam Pipe
Layer 2: Silicon Detector
Layer 3: Central Outer Tracker
Layer 4: Solenoid Magnet
Layer 5: Electromagnetic Calorimeters
Layer 6: Hadronic Calorimeters
Layer 7: Muon Detectors
Layer 1: the beam pipe[edit]
The beam pipe is the innermost layer of CDF. The beam pipe is where the protons and anti-protons, traveling at approximately 0.99996 c, collide head on. Each of the protons is moving extremely close to the speed of light with extremely high energies. Therefore, in a collision, much of the energy is converted into mass. This allows proton- anti-proton annihilation to produce daughter particles, such as top quarks with a mass of 175 GeV, much heavier than the original protons.[8]

Layer 2: silicon detector[edit]

CDF silicon vertex detector

Cross section of the silicon detector
Surrounding the beam pipe is the silicon detector. This detector is used to track the path of charged particles as they travel through the detector. The silicon detector begins at a radius of r = 1.5 cm from the beam line and extends to a radius of r = 28 cm from the beam line.[2] The silicon detector is composed of seven layers of silicon arranged in a barrel shape around the beam pipe. Silicon is often used in charged particle detectors because of its high sensitivity, allowing for high-resolution vertex and tracking.[9] The first layer of silicon, known as Layer 00, is a single sided detector designed to separate signal from background even under extreme radiation. The remaining layers are double sided and radiation-hard, meaning that the layers are protected from damage from radioactivity.[2] The silicon works to track the paths of charged particles as they pass through the detector by ionizing the silicon. The density of the silicon, coupled with the low ionization energy of silicon, allow ionization signals to travel quickly.[9] As a particle travels through the silicon, its position will be recorded in 3 dimensions. The silicon detector has a track hit resolution of 10 μm, and impact parameter resolution of 30 μm.[2] Physicists can look at this trail of ions and determine the path that the particle took.[8] As the silicon detector is located within a magnetic field, the curvature of the path through the silicon allows physicists to calculate the momentum of the particle. More curvature means less momentum and vice versa.

Layer 3: central outer tracker (COT)[edit]
Outside of the silicon detector, the central outer tracker works in much the manner as the silicon detector as it is also used to track the paths of charged particles and is also located within a magnetic field. The COT, however, is not made of silicon. Silicon is tremendously expensive and is not practical to purchase in extreme quantities. COT is a gas chamber filled with tens of thousands of gold wires arranged in layers and argon gas. Two types of wires are used in the COT: sense wires and field wires. Sense wires are thinner and attract the electrons that are released by the argon gas as it is ionized. The field wires are thicker than the sense wires and attract the positive ions formed from the release of electrons.[8] There are 96 layers of wire and each wire is placed approximately 3.86 mm apart from one another.[2] As in the silicon detector, when a charged particle passes through the chamber it ionizes the gas. This signal is then carried to a nearby wire, which is then carried to the computers for read-out. The COT is approximately 3.1 m long and extends from r = 40 cm to r = 137 cm. Although the COT is not nearly as precise as the silicon detector, the COT has a hit position resolution of 140 μm and a momentum resolution of 0.0015 (GeV/c)−1.[2]

Layer 4: solenoid magnet[edit]
The solenoid magnet surrounds both the COT and the silicon detector. The purpose of the solenoid is to bend the trajectory of charged particles in the COT and silicon detector by creating a magnetic field parallel to the beam.[2] The solenoid has a radius of r=1.5 m and is 4.8 m in length. The curvature of the trajectory of the particles in the magnet field allows physicists to calculate the momentum of each of the particles. The higher the curvature, the lower the momentum and vice versa. Because the particles have such a high energy, a very strong magnet is needed to bend the paths of the particles. The solenoid is a superconducting magnet cooled by liquid helium. The helium lowers the temperature of the magnet to 4.7 K or -268.45 °C which reduces the resistance to almost zero, allowing the magnet to conduct high currents with minimal heating and very high efficiency, and creating a powerful magnetic field.[8]

Layers 5 and 6: electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters[edit]
Calorimeters quantify the total energy of the particles by converting the energy of particles to visible light though polystyrene scintillators. CDF uses two types of calorimeters: electromagnetic calorimeters and hadronic calorimeters. The electromagnetic calorimeter measures the energy of light particles and the hadronic calorimeter measures the energy of hadrons.[8] The central electromagnetic calorimeter uses alternating sheets of lead and scintillator. Each layer of lead is approximately 20 mm (3⁄4 in) wide. The lead is used to stop the particles as they pass through the calorimeter and the scintillator is used to quantify the energy of the particles. The hadronic calorimeter works in much the same way except the hadronic calorimeter uses steel in place of lead.[2] Each calorimeter forms a wedge, which consists of both an electromagnetic calorimeter and a hadronic calorimeter. These wedges are about 2.4 m (8 ft) in length and are arranged around the solenoid.[8]

Layer 7: muon detectors[edit]
The final "layer" of the detector consists of the muon detectors. Muons are charged particles that may be produced when heavy particles decay. These high-energy particles hardly interact so the muon detectors are strategically placed at the farthest layer from the beam pipe behind large walls of steel. The steel ensures that only extremely high-energy particles, such as neutrinos and muons, pass through to the muon chambers.[8] There are two aspects of the muon detectors: the planar drift chambers and scintillators. There are four layers of planar drift chambers, each with the capability of detecting muons with a transverse momentum pT > 1.4 GeV/c.[2] These drift chambers work in the same way as the COT. They are filled with gas and wire. The charged muons ionize the gas and the signal is carried to readout by the wires.[8]

Conclusion[edit]
Understanding the different components of the detector is important because the detector determines what data will look like and what signal one can expect to see for each of your particles. It is important to remember that a detector is basically a set of obstacles used to force particles to interact, allowing physicists to “see” the presence of a certain particle. If a charged quark is passing through the detector, the evidence of this quark will be a curved trajectory in the silicon detector and COT deposited energy in the calorimeter. If a neutral particle, such as a neutron, passes through the detector, there will be no track in the COT and silicon detector but deposited energy in the hadronic calorimeter. Muons may appear in the COT and silicon detector and as deposited energy in the muon detectors. Likewise, a neutrino, which rarely if ever interacts, will express itself only in the form of missing energy.

References[edit]
Jump up ^ Jean, Reising. "History and Archives Project." About Fermilab - History and Archives Project - Main Page. 2006. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. 10 May 2009 http://history.fnal.gov/
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i "Brief Description of the CDF Detector in Run II." (2004): 1-2.
Jump up ^ Kilminster, Ben. "CDF "Results of the Week" in Fermilab Today." The Collider Detector at Fermilab. Collider Detector at Fermilab. 28 Apr. 2009 .
Jump up ^ Lankford, Andy. "Discovery of the Top Quark." Collider Detector at Fermilab. 25 Apr. 2009 .
Jump up ^ "Quark Chart." The Particle Adventure. Particle Data Group. 5 May 2009 .
Jump up ^ Quigg, Chris. "Discovery of the Top Quark." 1996. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. 8 May 2009 .
Jump up ^ Yoh, John (2005). Brief Introduction to the CDF Experiment. Retrieved April 28, 2008, Web site: http://www-cdf.fnal.gov/events/cdfintro.html
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Lee, Jenny (2008). The Collider Detector at Fermilab. Retrieved September 26, 2008, from CDF Virtual Tour Web site: http://www-cdf.fnal.gov/
^ Jump up to: a b "Particle Detectors." Particle Data Group. 24 July 2008. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. 11 May 2009 .
Further reading[edit]
Worlds within the atom, National Geographic article, May, 1985
External links[edit]
Fermilab news page
The Collider Detector At Fermilab (CDF)
Categories: Particle experimentsFermilab

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Christianity -- Christianity, 18:32:43 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Christianity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ as presented in the New Testament. Christianity is the world's largest religion,[2][3] with over 2.4 billion adherents,[4][5][6][note 2] known as Christians.[note 3] Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as Christ or the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament.[7]

Christian theology is expressed in ecumenical creeds. These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered, died, was buried, and was resurrected from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins. The creeds further maintain that Jesus bodily ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father, and that he will return to judge the living and dead and grant eternal life to his followers. His ministry, crucifixion and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel", meaning "good news".[note 4] The term gospel also refers to written accounts of Jesus's life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John—are considered canonical and included in the Christian Bible.

Christianity began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century.[8][9] Originating in Judea, it quickly spread to Europe, Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Egypt, Ethiopia, and India and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire.[10][11][12] Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization.[13][14][15] Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.[16][17][18][19][20]

Throughout its history, the religion has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct Churches and denominations. Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the various denominations of Protestantism. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox patriarchates split from one another in the schism of the 11th century; Protestantism came into existence in the Reformation of the 16th century, splitting from the Roman Catholic Church.[21]

Contents [hide]
1 Beliefs
1.1 Creeds
1.2 Jesus
1.3 Salvation
1.4 Trinity
1.5 Scriptures
1.6 Eschatology
2 Worship
2.1 Sacraments
2.2 Liturgical calendar
2.3 Symbols
2.4 Baptism
2.5 Prayer
3 History
3.1 Early Church and Christological Councils
3.2 Early Middle Ages
3.3 High and Late Middle Ages
3.4 Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation
3.5 Post-Enlightenment
4 Demographics
5 Major denominations
5.1 Catholic
5.2 Orthodox
5.3 Protestant
5.4 Restorationists and others
6 Christian culture
7 Ecumenism
8 Criticism and apologetics
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
11.1 Bibliography
12 Further reading
13 External links
Beliefs
There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible on which Christianity is based.[22] Because of these irreconcilable differences in theology and a lack of consensus on the core tenets of what defines Christianity, Protestants, Catholics and Orthodox church members and theologians often deny that members of other branches are Christians.[23]

Creeds
Main article: Creeds
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Apostles' Creed
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Nicene Creed
Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds (from Latin credo, meaning "I believe"). They began as baptismal formulae and were later expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.

Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal "in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another."[24]:p.111 Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada and the Churches of Christ.[25][26]:14–15[27]:123


An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381
The Apostles' Creed remains the most popular statement of the articles of Christian faith which are generally acceptable to most Christian denominations that are creedal. It is widely used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical Churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism, Anglicanism, and Western Rite Orthodoxy. It is also used by Presbyterians, Methodists, and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was apparently used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome.[28]

Its main points include:

belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the Holy Spirit
the death, descent into hell, resurrection, and ascension of Christ
the holiness of the Church and the communion of saints
Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful.
The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively[29][30] and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.[31]

The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451,[32] though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches,[33] taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are nevertheless also perfectly united into one person.[34]

The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance."[35]

Most Christians (Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Protestants alike) accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the creeds mentioned above.[36]

Jesus

Various depictions of Jesus
Main articles: Christ, Christian views of Jesus and Christology
See also: Jesus Christ in comparative mythology
The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God and the Messiah (Christ). Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus' coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept. The core Christian belief is that through belief in and acceptance of the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.[37]

While there have been many theological disputes over the nature of Jesus over the earliest centuries of Christian history, generally Christians believe that Jesus is God incarnate and "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin. As fully God, he rose to life again. According to the Bible,God raised him from the dead,[38] he ascended to heaven, is seated at the right hand of the Father[39] and will ultimately return[Acts 1:9–11] to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and final establishment of the Kingdom of God.

According to the canonical gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary. Little of Jesus' childhood is recorded in the canonical Gospels, however infancy Gospels were popular in antiquity. In comparison, his adulthood, especially the week before his death, is well documented in the Gospels contained within the New Testament, because that part of his life was believed to be most important. The Biblical accounts of Jesus' ministry include: his baptism, miracles, preaching, teaching, and deeds.

Death and resurrection
Main articles: Crucifixion of Jesus and Resurrection of Jesus

Crucifixion, representing the death of Jesus on the Cross, painting by Diego Velázquez, 17th century
Christians consider the resurrection of Jesus to be the cornerstone of their faith (see 1 Corinthians 15) and the most important event in history.[40] Among Christian beliefs, the death and resurrection of Jesus are two core events on which much of Christian doctrine and theology is based.[41][42] According to the New Testament Jesus was crucified, died a physical death, was buried within a tomb, and rose from the dead three days later.[Jn. 19:30–31] [Mk. 16:1] [16:6]

The New Testament mentions several resurrection appearances of Jesus on different occasions to his twelve apostles and disciples, including "more than five hundred brethren at once",[1Cor 15:6] before Jesus' Ascension to heaven. Jesus' death and resurrection are commemorated by Christians in all worship services, with special emphasis during Holy Week which includes Good Friday and Easter Sunday.

The death and resurrection of Jesus are usually considered the most important events in Christian theology, partly because they demonstrate that Jesus has power over life and death and therefore has the authority and power to give people eternal life.[43]

Christian churches accept and teach the New Testament account of the resurrection of Jesus with very few exceptions.[44] Some modern scholars use the belief of Jesus' followers in the resurrection as a point of departure for establishing the continuity of the historical Jesus and the proclamation of the early church.[45] Some liberal Christians do not accept a literal bodily resurrection,[46][47] seeing the story as richly symbolic and spiritually nourishing myth. Arguments over death and resurrection claims occur at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues.[48] Paul the Apostle, an early Christian convert and missionary, wrote, "If Christ was not raised, then all our preaching is useless, and your trust in God is useless."[1Cor 15:14] [49]

Salvation
Main article: Salvation (Christianity)
Paul the Apostle, like Jews and Roman pagans of his time, believed that sacrifice can bring about new kinship ties, purity, and eternal life.[50] For Paul the necessary sacrifice was the death of Jesus: Gentiles who are "Christ's" are, like Israel, descendants of Abraham and "heirs according to the promise".[Gal. 3:29] [51] The God who raised Jesus from the dead would also give new life to the "mortal bodies" of Gentile Christians, who had become with Israel the "children of God" and were therefore no longer "in the flesh".[Rom. 8:9,11,16] [50]

Modern Christian churches tend to be much more concerned with how humanity can be saved from a universal condition of sin and death than the question of how both Jews and Gentiles can be in God's family. According to both Catholic and Protestant doctrine, salvation comes by Jesus' substitutionary death and resurrection. The Catholic Church teaches that salvation does not occur without faithfulness on the part of Christians; converts must live in accordance with principles of love and ordinarily must be baptized.[52][53] Martin Luther taught that baptism was necessary for salvation, but modern Lutherans and other Protestants tend to teach that salvation is a gift that comes to an individual by God's grace, sometimes defined as "unmerited favor", even apart from baptism.

Christians differ in their views on the extent to which individuals' salvation is pre-ordained by God. Reformed theology places distinctive emphasis on grace by teaching that individuals are completely incapable of self-redemption, but that sanctifying grace is irresistible.[54] In contrast Catholics, Orthodox Christians and Arminian Protestants believe that the exercise of free will is necessary to have faith in Jesus.[55]

Trinity
Main article: Trinity

The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit
Trinity refers to the teaching that the one God[1] comprises three distinct, eternally co-existing persons; the Father, the Son (incarnate in Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. Together, these three persons are sometimes called the Godhead,[56][57][58] although there is no single term in use in Scripture to denote the unified Godhead.[59] In the words of the Athanasian Creed, an early statement of Christian belief, "the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, and yet there are not three Gods but one God".[60] They are distinct from another: the Father has no source, the Son is begotten of the Father, and the Spirit proceeds from the Father. Though distinct, the three persons cannot be divided from one another in being or in operation.[61]

The Trinity is an essential doctrine of mainstream Christianity. From earlier than the times of the Nicene Creed, 325 CE, Christianity advocated[62] the triune mystery-nature of God as a normative profession of faith. According to Roger E. Olson and Christopher Hall, through prayer, meditation, study and practice, the Christian community concluded "that God must exist as both a unity and trinity", codifying this in ecumenical council at the end of the 4th century.[63] [64]

According to this doctrine, God is not divided in the sense that each person has a third of the whole; rather, each person is considered to be fully God (see Perichoresis). The distinction lies in their relations, the Father being unbegotten; the Son being begotten of the Father; and the Holy Spirit proceeding from the Father and (in Western Christian theology) from the Son. Regardless of this apparent difference, the three "persons" are each eternal and omnipotent. Other Christian religions including Unitarian Universalism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism and others do not share those views on the Trinity.

The word trias, from which trinity is derived, is first seen in the works of Theophilus of Antioch. He wrote of "the Trinity of God (the Father), His Word (the Son) and His Wisdom (Holy Spirit)".[65] The term may have been in use before this time. Afterwards it appears in Tertullian.[66][67] In the following century the word was in general use. It is found in many passages of Origen.[68]

Trinitarians
Main article: Trinitarianism
Trinitarianism denotes those Christians who believe in the concept of the Trinity. Almost all Christian denominations and Churches hold Trinitarian beliefs. Although the words "Trinity" and "Triune" do not appear in the Bible, theologians beginning in the 3rd century developed the term and concept to facilitate comprehension of the New Testament teachings of God as Father, God as Jesus the Son, and God as the Holy Spirit. Since that time, Christian theologians have been careful to emphasize that Trinity does not imply three gods, nor that each member of the Trinity is one-third of an infinite God; Trinity is defined as one God in three Persons.[69]

Nontrinitarians
Main article: Nontrinitarianism
Nontrinitarianism refers to theology that rejects the doctrine of the Trinity. Various nontrinitarian views, such as adoptionism or modalism, existed in early Christianity, leading to the disputes about Christology.[70] Nontrinitarianism later appeared again in the Gnosticism of the Cathars in the 11th through 13th centuries, and by groups with Unitarian theology in the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century,[71] and in the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, and in some groups arising during the Second Great Awakening of the 19th century.

Scriptures
Main articles: Bible and Development of the Christian Biblical canon

The Bible is sacred in Christianity
Christianity, like other religions, has adherents whose beliefs and biblical interpretations vary. Christianity regards the biblical canon, the Old Testament and the New Testament, as the inspired word of God. The traditional view of inspiration is that God worked through human authors so that what they produced was what God wished to communicate. The Greek word referring to inspiration in 2 Timothy 3:16 is theopneustos, which literally means "God-breathed".[72]

Some believe that divine inspiration makes our present Bibles inerrant. Others claim inerrancy for the Bible in its original manuscripts, although none of those are extant. Still others maintain that only a particular translation is inerrant, such as the King James Version.[73][74][75] Another closely related view is Biblical infallibility or limited inerrancy, which affirms that the Bible is free of error as a guide to salvation, but may include errors on matters such as history, geography or science.

The books of the Bible accepted by the Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant churches vary somewhat, with Jews accepting only the Hebrew Bible as canonical; there is however substantial overlap. These variations are a reflection of the range of traditions, and of the councils that have convened on the subject. Every version of the Old Testament always includes the books of the Tanakh, the canon of the Hebrew Bible. The Catholic and Orthodox canons, in addition to the Tanakh, also include the Deuterocanonical Books as part of the Old Testament. These books appear in the Septuagint, but are regarded by Protestants to be apocryphal. However, they are considered to be important historical documents which help to inform the understanding of words, grammar and syntax used in the historical period of their conception. Some versions of the Bible include a separate Apocrypha section between the Old Testament and the New Testament.[76] The New Testament, originally written in Koine Greek, contains 27 books which are agreed upon by all churches.

Modern scholarship has raised many issues with the Bible. While the Authorized King James Version is held to by many because of its striking English prose, in fact it was translated from the Erasmus Greek Bible which in turn "was based on a single 12th Century manuscript that is one of the worst manuscripts we have available to us".[77] Much scholarship in the past several hundred years has gone into comparing different manuscripts in order to reconstruct the original text. Another issue is that several books are considered to be forgeries. The injunction that women "be silent and submissive" in 1 Timothy 12[78] is thought by many to be a forgery by a follower of Paul, a similar phrase in 1 Corinthians 14,[79] which is thought to be by Paul, appears in different places in different manuscripts and is thought to originally be a margin note by a copyist.[77] Other verses in 1 Corinthians, such as 1 Corinthians 11:2–16 where women are instructed to wear a covering over their hair "when they pray or prophesies",[80] contradict this verse.

A final issue with the Bible is the way in which books were selected for inclusion in the New Testament. Other Gospels have now been recovered, such as those found near Nag Hammadi in 1945, and while some of these texts are quite different from what Christians have been used to, it should be understood that some of this newly recovered Gospel material is quite possibly contemporaneous with, or even earlier than, the New Testament Gospels. The core of the Gospel of Thomas, in particular, may date from as early as 50 AD, and if so would provide an insight into the earliest gospel texts that underlie the canonical Gospels, texts that are mentioned in Luke 1:1–2. The Gospel of Thomas contains much that is familiar from the canonical Gospels—verse 113, for example ("The Father's Kingdom is spread out upon the earth, but people do not see it"),[81] is reminiscent of Luke 17:20–21[82][83]—and the Gospel of John, with a terminology and approach that is suggestive of what was later termed Gnosticism, has recently been seen as a possible response to the Gospel of Thomas, a text that is commonly labelled proto-Gnostic. Scholarship, then, is currently exploring the relationship in the Early Church between mystical speculation and experience on the one hand and the search for church order on the other, by analyzing new-found texts, by subjecting canonical texts to further scrutiny, and by an examination of the passage of New Testament texts to canonical status.

Catholic and Orthodox interpretations

St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic Church.
In antiquity, two schools of exegesis developed in Alexandria and Antioch. Alexandrine interpretation, exemplified by Origen, tended to read Scripture allegorically, while Antiochene interpretation adhered to the literal sense, holding that other meanings (called theoria) could only be accepted if based on the literal meaning.[84]

Catholic theology distinguishes two senses of scripture: the literal and the spiritual.[85]

The literal sense of understanding scripture is the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture. The spiritual sense is further subdivided into:

the allegorical sense, which includes typology. An example would be the parting of the Red Sea being understood as a "type" (sign) of baptism.[1Cor 10:2]
the moral sense, which understands the scripture to contain some ethical teaching.
the anagogical sense, which applies to eschatology, eternity and the consummation of the world
Regarding exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation, Catholic theology holds:

the injunction that all other senses of sacred scripture are based on the literal[86][87]
that the historicity of the Gospels must be absolutely and constantly held[88]
that scripture must be read within the "living Tradition of the whole Church"[89] and
that "the task of interpretation has been entrusted to the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter, the Bishop of Rome".[90]
Protestant interpretation

Protestants believe Martin Luther's basic beliefs against the Catholic Church: Sola scriptura (by Scripture alone), Sola fide (by faith alone), Sola gratia (by grace alone), Solus Christus (through Christ alone), and Soli Deo gloria (glory to God alone)
Clarity of Scripture
Protestant Christians believe that the Bible is a self-sufficient revelation, the final authority on all Christian doctrine, and revealed all truth necessary for salvation. This concept is known as sola scriptura.[91] Protestants characteristically believe that ordinary believers may reach an adequate understanding of Scripture because Scripture itself is clear (or "perspicuous"), because of the help of the Holy Spirit, or both. Martin Luther believed that without God's help Scripture would be "enveloped in darkness".[92] He advocated "one definite and simple understanding of Scripture".[92] John Calvin wrote, "all who refuse not to follow the Holy Spirit as their guide, find in the Scripture a clear light."[93] The Second Helvetic Confession, composed by the pastor of the Reformed church in Zürich (successor to Protestant reformer Zwingli) was adopted as a declaration of doctrine by most European Reformed churches.[94]
Original intended meaning of Scripture
Protestants stress the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture, the historical-grammatical method.[95] The historical-grammatical method or grammatico-historical method is an effort in Biblical hermeneutics to find the intended original meaning in the text.[96] This original intended meaning of the text is drawn out through examination of the passage in light of the grammatical and syntactical aspects, the historical background, the literary genre as well as theological (canonical) considerations.[97] The historical-grammatical method distinguishes between the one original meaning and the significance of the text. The significance of the text includes the ensuing use of the text or application. The original passage is seen as having only a single meaning or sense. As Milton S. Terry said: "A fundamental principle in grammatico-historical exposition is that the words and sentences can have but one significance in one and the same connection. The moment we neglect this principle we drift out upon a sea of uncertainty and conjecture."[98] Technically speaking, the grammatical-historical method of interpretation is distinct from the determination of the passage's significance in light of that interpretation. Taken together, both define the term (Biblical) hermeneutics.[96]
Some Protestant interpreters make use of typology.[99]

Eschatology
Main article: Christian eschatology

The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat. Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as the state religion, in AD 301.[100]
The end of things, whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, or the end of the world, broadly speaking is Christian eschatology; the study of the destiny of humans as it is revealed in the Bible. The major issues in Christian eschatology are the Tribulation, death and the afterlife, the Rapture, the Second Coming of Jesus, Resurrection of the Dead, Heaven and Hell, Millennialism, the Last Judgment, the end of the world, and the New Heavens and New Earth.

Christians believe that the second coming of Christ will occur at the end of time after a period of severe persecution (the Great Tribulation). All who have died will be resurrected bodily from the dead for the Last Judgment. Jesus will fully establish the Kingdom of God in fulfillment of scriptural prophecies.[101][102]

Death and afterlife
Most Christians believe that human beings experience divine judgment and are rewarded either with eternal life or eternal damnation. This includes the general judgement at the resurrection of the dead as well as the belief (held by Roman Catholics,[103][104] Orthodox[105][106] and most Protestants) in a judgment particular to the individual soul upon physical death.

In Roman Catholicism, those who die in a state of grace, i.e., without any mortal sin separating them from God, but are still imperfectly purified from the effects of sin, undergo purification through the intermediate state of purgatory to achieve the holiness necessary for entrance into God's presence.[107] Those who have attained this goal are called saints (Latin sanctus, "holy").[108]

Some Christian groups, such as Seventh-day Adventists, hold to mortalism, the belief that the human soul is not naturally immortal, and is unconscious during the intermediate state between bodily death and resurrection. These Christians also hold to Annihilationism, the belief that subsequent to the final judgement, the wicked will cease to exist rather than suffer everlasting torment. Jehovah's Witnesses hold to a similar view.[109]

Worship
Main article: Christian worship
See also: Mass (liturgy), Reformed worship and Contemporary worship

Samples of Catholic religious objects—The Bible, a Crucifix, and a Rosary
Justin Martyr described 2nd-century Christian liturgy in his First Apology (c. 150) to Emperor Antoninus Pius, and his description remains relevant to the basic structure of Christian liturgical worship:

And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need.

— Justin Martyr[110]
Thus, as Justin described, Christians assemble for communal worship on Sunday, the day of the resurrection, though other liturgical practices often occur outside this setting. Scripture readings are drawn from the Old and New Testaments, but especially the gospel accounts. Often these are arranged on an annual cycle, using a book called a lectionary. Instruction is given based on these readings, called a sermon, or homily. There are a variety of congregational prayers, including thanksgiving, confession, and intercession, which occur throughout the service and take a variety of forms including recited, responsive, silent, or sung. The Lord's Prayer, or Our Father, is regularly prayed.


A modern Protestant worship band leading a contemporary worship session
Some groups depart from this traditional liturgical structure. A division is often made between "High" church services, characterized by greater solemnity and ritual, and "Low" services, but even within these two categories there is great diversity in forms of worship. Seventh-day Adventists meet on Saturday, while others do not meet on a weekly basis. Charismatic or Pentecostal congregations may spontaneously feel led by the Holy Spirit to action rather than follow a formal order of service, including spontaneous prayer. Quakers sit quietly until moved by the Holy Spirit to speak.

Some evangelical services resemble concerts with rock and pop music, dancing, and use of multimedia. For groups which do not recognize a priesthood distinct from ordinary believers the services are generally led by a minister, preacher, or pastor. Still others may lack any formal leaders, either in principle or by local necessity. Some churches use only a cappella music, either on principle (for example, many Churches of Christ object to the use of instruments in worship) or by tradition (as in Orthodoxy).

Nearly all forms of churchmanship celebrate the Eucharist (Holy Communion), which consists of a consecrated meal. It is reenacted in accordance with Jesus' instruction at the Last Supper that his followers do in remembrance of him as when he gave his disciples bread, saying, "This is my body", and gave them wine saying, "This is my blood".[111] Some Christian denominations practice closed communion. They offer communion to those who are already united in that denomination or sometimes individual church. Catholics restrict participation to their members who are not in a state of mortal sin. Most other churches practice open communion since they view communion as a means to unity, rather than an end, and invite all believing Christians to participate.

Worship can be varied for special events like baptisms or weddings in the service or significant feast days. In the early church, Christians and those yet to complete initiation would separate for the Eucharistic part of the worship. In many churches today, adults and children will separate for all or some of the service to receive age-appropriate teaching. Such children's worship is often called Sunday school or Sabbath school (Sunday schools are often held before rather than during services).

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Christian -- Christian, 18:31:17 01/21/16 Thu [1]

Christian
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about Christian people. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation).
Christians
χριστιανοί
V&A - Raphael, The Miraculous Draught of Fishes (1515).jpg
After the miraculous catch of fish, Christ invokes his disciples to become "fishers of men" (Matthew 4:19); painting by Raphael, 1515.
Total population
The Earth seen from Apollo 17 with transparent background.png c. 2.4 billion worldwide (2015)[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
European Union 373,656,000[3]
United States 246,780,000[2]
Brazil 175,770,000[2]
Mexico 107,780,000[2]
Russia 105,220,000[2]
Philippines 86,790,000[2]
Nigeria 80,510,000[2]
China 67,070,000[2]
Democratic Republic of the Congo 63,150,000[2]
Germany 58,240,000[2]
Ethiopia 52,580,000[2]
Italy 51,550,000[2]
United Kingdom 45,030,000[2]
Colombia 42,810,000[2]
Languages
Sacred languages

Eastern Christianity: (Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Old Georgian, Classical Armenian, Ge'ez, Coptic and Syriac)
Western Christianity: (Ecclesiastical Latin, Early New High German )[2]
Religion
50% Catholicism: (Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Catholic Churches)[2]
37% Protestantism: (Adventism, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Lutheranism, Methodism, Pentecostalism and various other Protestant branches)[2]
12% Orthodoxy: (Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Churches and the Assyrian Church of the East)[2]
1% Other Christian Traditions: (Mormonism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Unitarianism, Christian Science, and Nondenominational Christianity)[2]
Related ethnic groups
Bahá'ís, Druze, Jewish, Mandaeans, Muslims, Rastafari and Samaritans
A Christian (About this sound pronunciation (help·info)) is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. "Christian" derives from the Koine Greek word Christós (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach.[4]

There are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict.[5][6] However, "Whatever else they might disagree about, Christians are at least united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance."[5] The term "Christian" is also used adjectivally to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a proverbial sense "all that is noble, and good, and Christ-like."[7] It is also used as a label to identify people who associate with the cultural aspects of Christianity, irrespective of personal religious beliefs or practices.[8]

According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million in 1910.[2] By 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed 3 billion.[2] According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey Christianity will remain the world's largest religion in 2050, if current trends continue.

Today, about 37% of all Christians live in the Americas, and about 26% live in Europe, 24% of total Christians live in sub-Saharan Africa, about 13% in Asia and the Pacific, and 1% of the world's Christians live in the Middle east and North Africa.[2] About half of all Christians worldwide are Catholic, while more than a third are Protestant (37%).[2] Orthodox communions comprise 12% of the world's Christians.[2] Other Christian groups make up the remainder. Christians make up the majority of the population in 158 countries and territories.[2] 280 million Christian live as a minority.

Christians have made a myriad contributions in a broad and diverse range of fields, including the sciences, arts, politics, literatures and business.[9][10][11][12][13][14] According to 100 Years of Nobel Prizes, a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000 reveals that (65.4%) of Nobel Prizes laureates identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference.[15]

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 Early usage
2.1 Nazarenes
3 Modern usage
3.1 Definition
3.2 Hebrew terms
3.3 Arabic terms
3.4 Asian terms
3.5 Russian terms
4 Demographics
5 Notable individuals
6 See also
7 References
8 Bibliography
Etymology
The Greek word Χριστιανός (Christianos), meaning "follower of Christ", comes from Χριστός (Christos), meaning "anointed one",[16] with an adjectival ending borrowed from Latin to denote adhering to, or even belonging to, as in slave ownership.[17] In the Greek Septuagint, christos was used to translate the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (Mašíaḥ, messiah), meaning "[one who is] anointed."[18] In other European languages, equivalent words to Christian are likewise derived from the Greek, such as Chrétien in French and Cristiano in Spanish.

Early usage

The Church of St Peter near Antakya, Turkey, in Antioch the disciples were called Christians.
The first recorded use of the term (or its cognates in other languages) is in the New Testament, in Acts 11:26, after Barnabas brought Saul (Paul) to Antioch where they taught the disciples for about a year, the text says: "[...] the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch." The second mention of the term follows in Acts 26:28, where Herod Agrippa II replied to Paul the Apostle, "Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian." The third and final New Testament reference to the term is in 1 Peter 4:16, which exhorts believers: "Yet if [any man suffer] as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God on this behalf."

Kenneth Samuel Wuest holds that all three original New Testament verses' usages reflect a derisive element in the term Christian to refer to followers of Christ who did not acknowledge the emperor of Rome.[19] The city of Antioch, where someone gave them the name Christians, had a reputation for coming up with such nicknames.[20] However Peter's apparent endorsement of the term led to its being preferred over "Nazarenes" and the term Christianoi from 1 Peter becomes the standard term in the Early Church Fathers from Ignatius and Polycarp onwards.[21]

The earliest occurrences of the term in non-Christian literature include Josephus, referring to "the tribe of Christians, so named from him;"[22] Pliny the Younger in correspondence with Trajan; and Tacitus, writing near the end of the 1st century. In the Annals he relates that "by vulgar appellation [they were] commonly called Christians"[23] and identifies Christians as Nero's scapegoats for the Great Fire of Rome.[24]

Nazarenes
Another term for Christians which appears in the New Testament is "Nazarenes" which is used by the Jewish lawyer Tertullus in Acts 24. Tertullian (Against Marcion 4:8) records that "the Jews call us Nazarenes," while around 331 AD Eusebius records that Christ was called a Nazoraean from the name Nazareth, and that in earlier centuries "Christians," were once called "Nazarenes."[25] The Hebrew equivalent of "Nazarenes", Notzrim, occurs in the Babylonian Talmud, and is still the modern Israeli Hebrew term for Christian.

Modern usage

The Latin cross and Ichthys symbols, two symbols often used by Christians to represent their religion.
Definition
A wide range of beliefs and practices is found across the world among those who call themselves Christian. Denominations and sects disagree on a common definition of "Christianity". For example, Timothy Beal notes the disparity of beliefs among those who identify as Christians in the United States as follows:

Although all of them have their historical roots in Christian theology and tradition, and although most would identify themselves as Christian, many would not identify others within the larger category as Christian. Most Baptists and Fundamentalists[further explanation needed], for example, would not acknowledge Mormonism or Christian Science as Christian. In fact, the nearly 77 percent of Americans who self-identify as Christian are a diverse pluribus of Christianities that are far from any collective unity.[26]

Linda Woodhead attempts to provide a common belief thread for Christians by noting that "Whatever else they might disagree about, Christians are at least united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance."[5] Philosopher Michael Martin, in his book The Case Against Christianity, evaluated three historical Christian creeds (the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed and the Athanasian Creed) to establish a set of basic assumptions which include belief in theism, the historicity of Jesus, the Incarnation, salvation through faith in Jesus, and Jesus as an ethical role model.[27]

Hebrew terms

Nazareth is described as the childhood home of Jesus. Many languages employ the word "Nazarene" as a general designation for those of Christian faith.
The identification of Jesus as the Messiah is not accepted by Judaism. The term for a Christian in Hebrew is נוּצְרי (Notzri—"Nazarene"), a Talmudic term originally derived from the fact that Jesus came from the Galilean village of Nazareth, today in northern Israel.[28] Adherents of Messianic Judaism are referred to in modern Hebrew as יְהוּדִים מָשִׁיחַיים (Yehudim Meshihi'im—"Messianic Jews").

Arabic terms
In Arabic-speaking cultures, two words are commonly used for Christians: Nasrani (نصراني), plural Nasara (نصارى) is generally understood to be derived from Nazareth[29] through the Syriac (Aramaic); Masihi (مسيحي) means followers of the Messiah.[29][30] The term Nasara rose to prominence in July 2014, after the Fall of Mosul to the terrorist organization Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The nun or ن--the first letter of "Nasara"—was spray-painted on the property of Christians ejected from the city.

Where there is a distinction, Nasrani refers to people from a Christian culture and Masihi means those with a religious faith in Jesus.[31] In some countries Nasrani tends to be used generically for non-Muslim Western foreigners, e.g. "blond people."[32]

Another Arabic word sometimes used for Christians, particularly in a political context, is Salibi (صليبي "Crusader") from salib (صليب "cross") which refers to Crusaders and has negative connotations.[30][33] However, "Salibi" is a modern term; historically, Muslim writers described European Christian Crusaders as "al-Faranj or Alfranj (الفرنج) and Firinjīyah (الفرنجيّة) in Arabic"[34] This word comes from the Franks and can be seen in the Arab history text Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh by Ali ibn al-Athir.[35][36]

Asian terms
The most common Persian word is Masīhī (مسیحی), from Arabic.,Other words are Nasrānī (نصرانی), from Syriac for "Nazarene", and Tarsā (ترسا), from Middle Persian word Tarsāg, also meaning "Christian", derived from tars, meaning "fear, respect".[37]

The Syriac term Nasrani (Nazarene) has also been attached to the Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala, India. In the Indian subcontinent, Christians call themselves Isaai (Hindi: ईसाई, Urdu: عیسائی‎), and are also known by this term to adherents of other religions.[38] This is related to the name they call Jesus, 'Isa Masih, and literally means 'the followers of 'Isa'.

In the past, the Malays used to call the Portuguese Serani from the Arabic Nasrani, but the term now refers to the modern Kristang creoles of Malaysia.

The Chinese word is 基督徒 (pinyin: jīdū tú), literally "Christ follower." The two characters now pronounced Jīdū in Mandarin Chinese, were originally pronounced Ki-To in Cantonese as representation of Latin "Cristo".[citation needed] In Vietnam, the same two characters read Cơ đốc, and a "follower of Christianity" is a tín đồ Cơ đốc giáo.


Japanese Christians ("Kurisuchan") in Portuguese costume, 16–17th century.
In Japan, the term kirishitan (written in Edo period documents 吉利支丹, 切支丹, and in modern Japanese histories as キリシタン), from Portuguese cristão, referred to Roman Catholics in the 16th and 17th centuries before the religion was banned by the Tokugawa shogunate. Today, Christians are referred to in Standard Japanese as キリスト教徒, Kirisuto-kyōto or the English-derived term クリスチャン kurisuchan.

Korean still uses 기독교도, Kidok-kyo-do for "Christian", though the Greek form Kurisudo 그리스도 has now replaced the old Sino-Korean Kidok, which refers to Christ himself.

Russian terms
The region of modern Eastern Europe and Central Eurasia (Russia, Ukraine and other countries of the ex-USSR) have a long history of Christianity and Christian communities on its lands. In ancient times, in the first centuries after the birth of Christ, when this region was called[by whom?] Scythia - Christians already lived there.[39] Later the region saw the first states to adopt Christianity officially - initially in Armenia (301 AD) and in Georgia (337 AD), later in the Great Russian Principality (Kyivan Rus, Russian: Великое княжество Русское, ca 988 AD). People of that time used to denote themselves Christians (христиане, крестьяне) and Russians (русские). Both terms had strong Christian connotations.[citation needed] It is also interesting that in time the term "крестьяне" acquired the meaning "peasants of Christian faith" and later "peasants" (the main part of the population of the region), while the term "христиане" retained its religious meaning and the term "русские" began to mean representatives of the heterogeneous Russian nation formed on the basis of common Christian faith and language,[citation needed] which strongly influenced the history and development of the region. In the region the "Pravoslav faith" (православная вера - Orthodox faith) or "Russian faith" (русская вера) from earliest times became almost as known as the original "Christian faith" (христианская, крестьянская вера). Also in some contexts the term "cossack" (козак, казак - free man by the will of God) was used[by whom?] to denote "free" Christians of steppe origin and Russian language.

Demographics
Main article: Christianity by country
As of the early 21st century, Christianity has approximately 2.4 billion adherents.[40][41][42] The faith represents about a third of the world's population and is the largest religion in the world. Christians have composed about 33 percent of the world's population for around 100 years. The largest Christian denomination is the Roman Catholic Church, with 1.17 billion adherents, representing half of all Christians.[43]

Christianity remains the dominant religion in the Western World, where 70% are Christians.[2] A 2011 Pew Research Center survey found that 76.2% of Europeans, 73.3% in Oceania, and about 86.0% in the Americas (90% in Latin America and 77.4% in North America) described themselves as Christians.[2][44][45][46]

According to 2012 Pew Research Center survey if current trends continue, Christianity will remains the world's largest religion by year 2050. By 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed 3 billion. While Muslims have an average of 3.1 children per woman—the highest rate of all religious groups. Christians are second, with 2.7 children per woman. High birth rates and conversion were cited as the reason for the Christian population growths. A 2015 study found that approximately 10.2 million Muslim converted to Christianity.[47] Christianity is growing in Africa,[48][49] Asia,[49][50] Latin America,[51] Muslim world,[52] and Oceania.


Percentage of Christians worldwide
Twenty countries with the most Christians
Country Christians % Christian
United States (details) 246,780,000 73%
Brazil (details) 175,770,000 90.2%
Mexico (details) 107,780,000 92%
Russia (details) 99,775,000 70.3%
Philippines (details) 90,530,000 92.4%
Nigeria (details) 76,281,000 48.2%
Congo, Democratic Republic of (details) 68,558,000 95.6%
China, People's Republic of (details) 66,959,000 5.0%
Italy (details) 55,070,000 91.1%
Ethiopia (details) 54,978,000 64.5%
Germany (details) 50,400,000 [53] 61.9%
Colombia (details) 44,502,000 97.6%
Ukraine (details) 41,973,000 91.5%
South Africa (details) 39,843,000 79.7%
Argentina (details) 37,561,000 92.7%
Poland (details) 36,526,000 95.7%
Spain (details) 35,568,000 77.2%
France (details) 35,014,000 53.5%
Kenya (details) 34,774,000 85.1%
Uganda (details) 29,943,000 88.6%
Notable individuals
Main articles: Lists of Christians and List of Christian Nobel laureates
Christians have made a myriad contributions in a broad and diverse range of fields, including the sciences, arts, politics, literatures and business.[9][10][11][12][13][14] According to 100 Years of Nobel Prizes, a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000 reveals that (65.4%) of Nobel Prizes laureates identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference.[15]

According to Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United State by Harriet Zuckerman, a review of American Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 1972, 72% of American Nobel Prize laureates identified a Protestant background.[54] Overall, Protestants have won a total of 84.2% of all the Nobel Prizes in Chemistry,[54] 60% in Medicine,[54] and 58.6% in Physics awarded to Americans[54] between 1901 and 1972.

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